We thank Julia Flaherty of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for providing Fig. 1. We also thank Prof. Songyou Hong for the helpful discussion and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The RWP was provided by the DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility, and the tower anemometer data were provided by the Bonneville Power Administration. A portion of the research was performed using PNNL Institutional Computing. PNNL is operated by Battelle for the DOE under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830.
Berg, L. K., , and S. Zhong, 2005: Sensitivity of MM5-simulated boundary layer characteristics to turbulence parameterizations. J. Appl. Meteor., 44, 1467–1483.
Berg, L. K., , M. Pekour, , and D. Nelson, 2012: Description of the Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study (CBWES). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Tech. Rep. PNNL-22036, 14 pp. [Available online at http://www.pnnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-22036.pdf.]
Berg, L. K., , W. I. Gustafson Jr., , E. I. Kassianov, , and L. Deng, 2013: Evaluation of a modified scheme for shallow convection: Implementation of CuP and case studies. Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 134–147.
Bossavy, A., , R. Girard, , and G. Kariniotakis, 2012: Forecasting ramps of wind power production with numerical weather prediction ensembles. Wind Energy, 16, 51–63.
Bretherton, C. S., , and S. Park, 2009: A new moist turbulence parameterization in the Community Atmosphere Model. J. Climate, 22, 3422–3448.
Chen, F., , and J. Dudhia, 2001: Coupling an advanced land surface–hydrology model with the Penn State–NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part I: Model implementation and sensitivity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 569–585.
Chou, M.-D., , and M. J. Suarez, 1994: An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general circulation models. NASA Tech. Memo. NASA/TM-104606, Vol. 3, 85 pp. [Available online at http://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/pubs/docs/Chou128.pdf.]
Cutler, N., , M. Kay, , K. Jacka, , and T. S. Nielsen, 2007: Detecting, categorizing and forecasting large ramps in wind farm power output using meteorological observations and WPPT. Wind Energy, 10, 453–470.
Gallego, C., , A. Costa, , Á. Cuerva, , L. Landberg, , B. Greaves, , and J. Collins, 2012: A wavelet-based approach for large wind power ramp characterization. Wind Energy, 16, 257–278.
Greaves, B., , J. Collins, , J. Parkes, , and A. Tindal, 2009: Temporal forecast uncertainty for ramp events. Wind Eng., 33, 309–320.
Hong, S. Y., , Y. Noh, , and J. Dudhia, 2006: A new vertical diffusion package with an explicit treatment of entrainment processes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 2318–2341.
Janjić, Z. I., 1994: The step-mountain eta coordinate model: Further developments of the convection, viscous sublayer and turbulence closure schemes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 927–945.
Janjić, Z. I., 1996: The surface layer in the NCEP Eta Model. Preprints, 11th Conf. on Numerical Weather Prediction, Norfolk, VA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 354–355.
Janjić, Z. I., 2002: Nonsingular implementation of the Mellor–Yamada level 2.5 scheme in the NCEP Meso Model. National Centers for Environmental Prediction Office Note 437, 61 pp. [Available online at http://www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/officenotes/newernotes/on437.pdf.]
Jiménez, P. A., , J. Dudhia, , J. F. González-Rouco, , J. Navarro, , J. P. Montávez, , and E. García-Bustamante, 2012: A revised scheme for the WRF surface layer formulation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 898–918.
Kang, S.-L., , D. Lenschow, , and P. Sullivan, 2012: Effects of mesoscale surface thermal heterogeneity on low-level horizontal wind speeds. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 143, 409–432.
Lundquist, K. A., , F. K. Chow, , and J. K. Lundquist, 2010: An immersed boundary method for the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 138, 796–817.
Mlawer, E. J., , S. J. Taubman, , P. D. Brown, , M. J. Iacono, , and S. A. Clough, 1997: Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmosphere: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 16 663–16 682.
Pleim, J. E., , and A. Xiu, 1995: Development and testing of a surface flux and planetary boundary layer model for application in mesoscale models. J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 16–32.
Shin, H. H., , and S.-Y. Hong, 2011: Intercomparison of planetary boundary-layer parametrizations in the WRF model for a single day from CASES-99. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 139, 261–281.
Skamarock, W. C., and Coauthors, 2008: A description of the Advanced Research WRF version 3. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN–475+STR, 113 pp.
Wan, Y.-H., 2011: Analysis of wind power ramping behavior in ERCOT. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Tech. Rep. NREL/TP-5500–49218, 19 pp. [Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy11osti/49218.pdf.]
Xiu, A., , and J. E. Pleim, 2001: Development of a land surface model. Part I: Application in a mesoscale meteorological model. J. Appl. Meteor., 40, 192–209.
Yang, Q., and Coauthors, 2012: Impact of natural and anthropogenic aerosols on stratocumulus and precipitation in the southeast Pacific: A regional modeling study using WRF-Chem. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 8777–8796.