The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) and the National Science Foundation within Research Grant ATM-1016153.
Botnick, A. M., and E. Fedorovich, 2008: Large eddy simulation of atmospheric convective boundary layer with realistic environmental forcings. Quality and Reliability of Large-Eddy Simulations, J. Meyers, B. Geurts, and P. Sagaut, Eds., Springer, 193–204.
Bou-Zeid, E., C. Meneveau, and M. Parlange, 2005: A scale-dependent Lagrangian dynamic model for large eddy simulation of complex turbulent flows. Phys. Fluids,17, 025105, doi:10.1063/1.1839152.
Chow, F. K., R. L. Street, M. Xue, and J. H. Ferziger, 2005: Explicit filtering and reconstruction turbulence modeling for large-eddy simulation of neutral boundary layer flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 2058–2077.
Deardorff, J. W., 1970: Convective velocity and temperature scales for the unstable planetary boundary layer and for Rayleigh convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 27, 1211–1213.
Deardorff, J. W., 1980: Stratocumulus-capped mixed layers derived from a three-dimensional model. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 18, 495–527.
Domaradzki, J. A., W. Liu, and M. E. Brachet, 1993: An analysis of subgrid-scale interactions in numerically simulated isotropic turbulence. Phys. Fluids A, 5, 1747–1759.
Dyer, A. J., and B. B. Hicks, 1970: Flux–gradient relationships in the constant flux layer. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 96, 715–721.
Fedorovich, E., F. T. M. Nieuwstadt, and R. Kaiser, 2001: Numerical and laboratory study of horizontally evolving convective boundary layer. Part I: Transition regimes and development of the mixed layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 70–86.
Fedorovich, E., R. Conzemius, and D. Mironov, 2004a: Convective entrainment into a shear-free linearly stratified atmosphere: Bulk models reevaluated through large eddy simulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 281–295.
Fedorovich, E., and Coauthors, 2004b: Entrainment into sheared convective boundary layers as predicted by different large eddy simulation codes. Preprints, 16th Symp. on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, Portland, ME, Amer. Meteor. Soc., P4.7. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/78656.pdf.]
Gibbs, J. A., E. Fedorovich, and A. M. J. van Eijk, 2011: Evaluating Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model predictions of turbulent flow parameters in a dry convective boundary layer. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 50, 2429–2444.
Kaiser, R., and E. Fedorovich, 1998: Turbulence spectra and dissipation rates in a wind tunnel model of the atmospheric convective boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 580–594.
Klemp, J. B., and W. Skamarock, 2004: Model numerics for convective-storm simulation. Atmospheric Turbulence and Mesoscale Meteorology, E. Fedorovich, R. Rotunno, and B. Stevens, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 117–138.
Klemp, J. B., W. Skamarock, and J. Dudhia, 2007: Conservative split-explicit time integration methods for the compressible nonhydrostatic equations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 2897–2913.
LeMone, M. A., 1990: Some observations of vertical velocity skewness in the planetary boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 1163–1169.
Mirocha, J. D., J. K. Lundquist, and B. Kosović, 2010: Implementation of a nonlinear subfilter turbulence stress model for large-eddy simulation in the Advanced Research WRF model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 4212–4228.
Moeng, C.-H., and P. P. Sullivan, 1994: A comparison of shear- and buoyancy-driven planetary boundary layer flows. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 999–1022.
Moeng, C.-H., J. Dudhia, J. Klemp, and P. Sullivan, 2007: Examining two-way grid nesting for large eddy simulation of the PBL using the WRF model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 2295–2311.
Monin, A. S., and A. M. Obukhov, 1954: Basic laws of turbulent mixing in the surface layer of the atmosphere. Contrib. Geophys. Inst. Acad. Sci., USSR,151, 163–187.
Nieuwstadt, F. T. M., 1990: Direct and large-eddy simulation of free convection. Proc. Ninth Int. Heat Transfer Conf., Jerusalem, Israel, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 37–47.
Skamarock, W. C., and J. B. Klemp, 1992: The stability of time-split numerical methods for the hydrostatic and the nonhydrostatic elastic equations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 120, 2109–2127.
Skamarock, W. C., J. B. Klemp, J. Dudhia, D. O. Gill, D. M. Barker, W. Wang, and J. G. Powers, 2008: A description of the Advanced Research WRF version 3. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN–475+STR, 113 pp. [Available online at www.mmm.ucar.edu/wrf/users/docs/arw_v3.pdf.]
Sullivan, P. P., J. C. McWilliams, and C.-H. Moeng, 1996: A grid nesting method for large-eddy simulation of planetary boundary-layer flows. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 80, 167–202.
Takemi, T., and R. Rotunno, 2003: The effects of subgrid model mixing and numerical filtering in simulations of mesoscale cloud systems. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 2085–2101.
Wicker, L. J., and W. C. Skamarock, 1998: A time-splitting scheme for the elastic equations incorporating second-order Runge–Kutta time differencing. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 1992–1999.
Wicker, L. J., and W. C. Skamarock, 2002: Time-splitting methods for elastic models using forward time schemes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 2088–2097.