The authors thank the editor and three reviewers for their comments and suggestions, which helped improve the clarity of this paper. Figures 2, 4, 9, and 13 were prepared following the suggestions of the reviewers. This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41375073) and the Key Technologies R&D Program (201306032), as well as the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA0509400).The NCEP–NCAR reanalysis dataset was obtained online (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.ncep.reanalysis.html). Author QH was supported by USDA Cooperative Research Project NEB-38-088.
Chen, F., , S. B. Yang, , S. H. Shen, , M. Zhang, , and Y. X. Zhao, 2013: Spatial and temporal distribution of spring cold damage in double cropping rice areas of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (in Chinese). Jiangsu J. Agric. Sci., 29, 540–547.
Ding, T., , and W. H. Qian, 2011: Geographical patterns and temporal variations of regional dry and wet heatwave events in China during 1960–2008. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 28, 322–337, doi:10.1007/s00376-010-9236-7.
Ding, Y. H., , Z. Y. Wang, , Y. F. Song, , and J. Zhang, 2008: Causes of the unprecedented freezing disaster in January 2008 and its possible association with the global warming (in Chinese). Acta Meteor. Sin., 66, 808–825.
Du, J., , R. H. Grumm, , and G. Deng, 2014: Ensemble anomaly forecasting approach to predicting extreme weather demonstrated by extremely heavy rain event in Beijing (in Chinese). Chin. J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 685–699.
Du, Y. D., 2005: Frost and high temperature injury in China. Natural Disasters and Extreme Events in Agriculture, M. V. K. Sivakumar, Ed., Springer, 145–157.
Easterling, D. R., , J. L. Evans, , P. Y. Groisman, , T. R. Karl, , K. E. Kunkel, , and P. Ambenje, 2000: Observed variability and trends in extreme climate events: A brief review. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81, 417–425, doi:10.1175/1520-0477(2000)081<0417:OVATIE>2.3.CO;2.
Grumm, R. H., , and R. Hart, 2001: Standardized anomalies applied to significant cold season weather events: Preliminary findings. Wea. Forecasting, 16, 736–754, doi:10.1175/1520-0434(2001)016<0736:SAATSC>2.0.CO;2.
Hart, R. E., , and R. H. Grumm, 2001: Using normalized climatological anomalies to rank synoptic-scale events objectively. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 2426–2442, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<2426:UNCATR>2.0.CO;2.
Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437–471, doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2.
Lalaurette, F., 2003: Early detection of abnormal weather conditions using a probabilistic extreme forecast index. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 129, 3037–3057, doi:10.1256/qj.02.152.
Li, Z., , and Z. W. Yan, 2009: Homogenized daily mean/maximum/minimum temperature series for China from 1960 to 2008. Atmos. Ocean. Sci. Lett., 2, 237–243.
Qian, W. H., , and J. L. Fu, 2010: Frontal genesis of moisture atmosphere during the early 2008 persistent freezing-rain event in southern China. China Earth Sci., 53, 454–464, doi:10.1007/s11430-009-0101-4.
Qian, W. H., , and Z. J. Zhang, 2012: Precursors to predict low-temperature freezing-rain events in southern China. Chin. J. Geophys., 55, 1501–1512.
Qian, W. H., , J. Li, , and X. L. Shan, 2013: Application of synoptic-scale anomalous winds predicted by medium-range weather forecast models on the regional heavy rainfall in China in 2010. China Earth Sci., 56, 1059–1070, doi:10.1007/s11430-013-4586-5.
Qian, W. H., , X. L. Shan, , H. Y. Liang, , J. Huang, , and C. H. Leung, 2014: A generalized beta-advection model to improve unusual typhoon track prediction by decomposing total flow into climatic and anomalous flows. J. Geophys. Res., 119, 1097–1117, doi:10.1002/2013JD020902.
State Standardization Committee, 2012: Low temperature disaster of southern rice, rapeseed and orange. Rep. GB/T 27959-2011, State Standardization Committee of China, 4 pp.
Yan, Z. W., , and C. Yang, 2000: Geographic patterns of climate extreme changes in China during 1951-1997. Climatic Environ. Res., 5, 267–272.
Zhang, B., , and Y. Li, 2013: Performance verification of medium-range forecasting by T639 and ECMWF and Japan model from June to August 2013. Meteor. Mon., 39, 1514–1520.
Zhang, S. Y., , X. N. Liu, , and A. J. Sun, 1995: Climatic features of autumn low temperature damages (in Chinese). Meteor. Mon., 21, 21–24.
Zhang, Z. J., , and W. H. Qian, 2011: Identifying regional prolonged low temperature events in China. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 28, 338–351, doi:10.1007/s00376-010-0048-6.
Zhang, Z. J., , and W. H. Qian, 2012: Precursors of regional prolonged low temperature events in China during winter-half year (in Chinese). Chin. J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 1269–1279.
Zhao, P., , P. P. Jiang, , X. J. Zhou, , and C. W. Zhu, 2009: Modeling impacts of East Asian ocean–land thermal contrast on spring southwesterly winds and rainfall in eastern China. Chin. Sci. Bull., 54, 4733–4741, doi:10.1007/s11434-009-0229-9.
Zhu, C. W., , X. J. Zhou, , P. Zhao, , L. X. Chen, , and J. H. He, 2011: Onset of East Asian subtropical summer monsoon and rainy season in China. China Earth Sci., 54, 1845–1853, doi:10.1007/s11430-011-4284-0.
Zsoter, E., 2006: Recent developments in extreme weather forecasting. ECMWF Newsletter, Vol. 107, ECMWF, Reading, United Kingdom, 8–17.