Corrigendum

Caitlyn McAllister aMeteorology Program, Applied Aviation Sciences Department, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida

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Aaron Stephens aMeteorology Program, Applied Aviation Sciences Department, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida

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Shawn M. Milrad aMeteorology Program, Applied Aviation Sciences Department, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida

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© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Shawn M. Milrad, milrads@erau.edu

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Shawn M. Milrad, milrads@erau.edu

The wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) calculation code that we used for our published article (McAllister et al. 2022) had a previously undiscovered temperature unit error in it, resulting in our original WBGT calculations being too low. This affected Figs. 5, 6, and 9, as well as Tables 3 and 5, for all of which we present corrected versions here. In general, the corrections make our trend analyses and results more robust and demonstrate that heat stress increases in Florida are even more profound than McAllister et al. (2022) originally showed. The results for heat index in McAllister et al. (2022) are completely unaffected.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Observations and linear trends in average summer [June–August (JJA)] daily maximum (red), mean (gray), and minimum (blue) WBGT (1950–2020) at (a) KPNS, (b) Tallahassee (KTLH), (c) KJAX, and (d) KDAB. Linear trend lines (dashed) for each variable are based on the Theil–Sen estimator, with the corresponding values (°F yr−1) displayed in Table 3. The Z scores and p values of trends based on the MK significance test, as well as p values from the Student’s t test evaluating differences between the first (1950–84) and last (1986–2020) 35 years in the study period, are also shown in Table 3. Trends (MK) and period differences (Student’s t test) are deemed statistically significant when p ≤ 0.05.

Citation: Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 61, 11; 10.1175/JAMC-D-22-0130.1

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

As in Fig. 5, but for (a) KMCO, (b) KTPA, (c) KMIA, and (d) KEYW. Corresponding statistics are shown in Table 3. Note that all stations except KMCO start in 1950; KMCO data start in 1952 (Table 1 of McAllister et al. 2022).

Citation: Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 61, 11; 10.1175/JAMC-D-22-0130.1

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Frequency histograms (days yr−1) of summer (JJA) daily maximum WBGT that fit the moderate (yellow), high (red), and extreme (black) threshold categories defined in Fig 2b of McAllister et al. (2022). Corresponding statistics are shown in Table 5. Shown here are (a) KPNS, (b) KTLH, (c) KJAX, (d) KDAB, (e) KMCO, (f) KTPA, (g) KMIA, and (h) KEYW. All histograms are for 1950–2020, except for KMCO (1952–2020).

Citation: Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 61, 11; 10.1175/JAMC-D-22-0130.1

Table 3

As in Table 2 of McAllister et al. (2022), but for the average summer daily WBGT observations and trends (1950–2020) displayed in Figs. 5 and 6.

Table 3
Table 5

Statistics for the average summer daily maximum WBGT threshold category trends shown in Fig. 9. From left to right: threshold category [Fig 2b of McAllister et al. (2022)] and number n of events in each category throughout the climatology period, linear trends (days yr−1) using the Theil–Sen estimator, and Z scores and p values of the linear trends from the MK significance test. Results are considered to be statistically significant when p ≤ 0.05 (marked in boldface italics).

Table 5

The changes to Figs. 5 and 6 and Table 3 (WBGT trends) are relatively minor and primarily affect WBGT magnitudes, which were previously underestimated. The trends and conclusions discussed in section 3b of McAllister et al. (2022) are largely unchanged, with the following notable exceptions:

  • Increases in daily maximum WBGT are now statistically significant (Mann–Kendall test; Table 3) at six of eight cities [the exceptions are Pensacola (KPNS) and Key West (KEYW)]. In McAllister et al. (2022), only four of eight cities exhibited statistically significant increases.

  • Period differences in maximum WBGT are statistically significant at five of eight cities, excluding KPNS, Jacksonville (KJAX), and KEYW (Table 3). In McAllister et al. (2022), statistically significant differences were found at six of eight stations (the exceptions were KPNS and KJAX).

  • Statistically significant increases and period differences in daily mean and minimum WBGT remain true across the board, with the minor exception of period differences in daily mean WBGT at Orlando (KMCO). The daily mean WBGT period difference is still positive (Table 3) but is now not statistically significant.

  • Particularly since 2000, all eight cities feature average summer daily maximum WBGT substantially greater than 90°F (Figs. 5, 6), considered to be “extreme” by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. In McAllister et al. (2022), a few cities had values slightly less than 90°F.

Because our previous code underestimated WBGT magnitudes by approximately 2°–3°F, the changes to Fig. 9 and Table 5 (WBGT threshold exceedance frequencies) are substantial. As such, we strongly encourage the reader to refer to the following discussion instead of the threshold frequency analysis contained in parts of sections 4b and 5 in McAllister et al. (2022).

Figure 9 shows the number of summer days per year in which each daily maximum WBGT absolute threshold (moderate, high, and extreme) is exceeded. Corresponding trends and significance test results are shown in Table 5. High WBGT summer days exhibit statistically significant frequency at all eight cities (Table 5). Extreme WBGT days also increase at all eight locations, but the increases are only statistically significant at six cities (the exceptions are KPNS and KMCO). Furthermore, moderate WBGT days decrease in frequency at all eight cities (Table 5; Fig. 9), and significantly so at five of eight locations (the exceptions are KPNS, KJAX, and KMCO). Trends across Florida are marked by formerly moderate WBGT days being replaced by high and extreme WBGT days, emphasizing an alarming increase in hazardous heat stress.

The largest statistically significant positive frequency trends in high WBGT days occur at Miami (KMIA; 0.344 days yr−1), Daytona Beach (KDAB; 0.333 days yr−1), and Tampa (KTPA; 0.308 days yr−1), corresponding to the largest positive trends in daily maximum WBGT (Figs. 5, 6; Table 3). For extreme WBGT day increases, KEYW and KJAX rank second and third, respectively, after KDAB, followed by KTPA and KMIA (Table 5). These results demonstrate that increases in high and extreme WBGT days are most prominent at coastal locations in the Florida Peninsula and Florida Keys. Given the documented increase in SSTs and associated evaporation/humidity in coastal subtropical locations over the past few decades (e.g., Little et al. 2015; Raymond et al. 2020), this is likely not a coincidence.

Overall, WBGT threshold frequency trends (Fig. 9; Table 5) show a substantial escalation in hazardous heat stress during Florida summers. Particularly since 2000, most stations are experiencing >30 high and >20 extreme WBGT days per summer (Fig. 9), meaning that more than one-half of summer days pose a large threat to human health, especially for outdoor workers (e.g., agricultural and construction) and individuals without access to sufficient cooling systems.

The authors greatly apologize for the WBGT coding error (“bug”) that we did not discover sooner and that necessitated this corrigendum.

REFERENCES

  • Little, C. M., R. M. Horton, R. E. Kopp, M. Oppenheimer, G. A. Vecchi, and G. Villarini, 2015: Joint projections of U.S. East Coast sea level and storm surge. Nat. Climate Change, 5, 11141120, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2801.

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  • McAllister, C., A. Stephens, and S. M. Milrad, 2022: The heat is on: Observations and trends of heat stress metrics during Florida summers. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 61, 277296, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-21-0113.1.

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  • Raymond, C., T. Matthews, and R. M. Horton, 2020: The emergence of heat and humidity too severe for human tolerance. Sci. Adv., 6, eaaw1838, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaw1838.

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  • Little, C. M., R. M. Horton, R. E. Kopp, M. Oppenheimer, G. A. Vecchi, and G. Villarini, 2015: Joint projections of U.S. East Coast sea level and storm surge. Nat. Climate Change, 5, 11141120, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2801.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McAllister, C., A. Stephens, and S. M. Milrad, 2022: The heat is on: Observations and trends of heat stress metrics during Florida summers. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 61, 277296, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-21-0113.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raymond, C., T. Matthews, and R. M. Horton, 2020: The emergence of heat and humidity too severe for human tolerance. Sci. Adv., 6, eaaw1838, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaw1838.

  • Fig. 5.

    Observations and linear trends in average summer [June–August (JJA)] daily maximum (red), mean (gray), and minimum (blue) WBGT (1950–2020) at (a) KPNS, (b) Tallahassee (KTLH), (c) KJAX, and (d) KDAB. Linear trend lines (dashed) for each variable are based on the Theil–Sen estimator, with the corresponding values (°F yr−1) displayed in Table 3. The Z scores and p values of trends based on the MK significance test, as well as p values from the Student’s t test evaluating differences between the first (1950–84) and last (1986–2020) 35 years in the study period, are also shown in Table 3. Trends (MK) and period differences (Student’s t test) are deemed statistically significant when p ≤ 0.05.

  • Fig. 6.

    As in Fig. 5, but for (a) KMCO, (b) KTPA, (c) KMIA, and (d) KEYW. Corresponding statistics are shown in Table 3. Note that all stations except KMCO start in 1950; KMCO data start in 1952 (Table 1 of McAllister et al. 2022).

  • Fig. 9.

    Frequency histograms (days yr−1) of summer (JJA) daily maximum WBGT that fit the moderate (yellow), high (red), and extreme (black) threshold categories defined in Fig 2b of McAllister et al. (2022). Corresponding statistics are shown in Table 5. Shown here are (a) KPNS, (b) KTLH, (c) KJAX, (d) KDAB, (e) KMCO, (f) KTPA, (g) KMIA, and (h) KEYW. All histograms are for 1950–2020, except for KMCO (1952–2020).

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