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Performance Characteristics of Various Artificial Ice Nuclei Sources

Charles I. DavisColorado State University, Fort Collins

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Roger L. SteeleColorado State University, Fort Collins

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Abstract

A variety of devices that produce artificial nuclei have been used in weather modification experiments. These fall into two broad classifications, i.e., pyrotechnics and steady-state flame-type generators.

The effectiveness-temperature relationships for these classes were measured and are presented in graphical form. In summary, the steady-state systems are in general one order of magnitude more effective than the pyrotechnics at temperatures below −12C. Above this temperature, the effectiveness of the pryotechnics approaches and in some cases exceeds that of the steady-state systems. These different characteristics can be explained by particle size effects.

Other performance parameters are examined. Air-fuel ratio is one of these since effectiveness varies markedly near the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio for steady-state systems. A system which employs isopropylamine as the AgI carrier is more sensitive to changes in air-fuel ratio than the NaI-acetone AgI carriers. Another important performance parameter is AgI burn rate. In general, the effectiveness of a pyrotechnic decreases rapidly and then levels off as the burn rate increases. This same effect has been observed in steady-state systems.

Abstract

A variety of devices that produce artificial nuclei have been used in weather modification experiments. These fall into two broad classifications, i.e., pyrotechnics and steady-state flame-type generators.

The effectiveness-temperature relationships for these classes were measured and are presented in graphical form. In summary, the steady-state systems are in general one order of magnitude more effective than the pyrotechnics at temperatures below −12C. Above this temperature, the effectiveness of the pryotechnics approaches and in some cases exceeds that of the steady-state systems. These different characteristics can be explained by particle size effects.

Other performance parameters are examined. Air-fuel ratio is one of these since effectiveness varies markedly near the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio for steady-state systems. A system which employs isopropylamine as the AgI carrier is more sensitive to changes in air-fuel ratio than the NaI-acetone AgI carriers. Another important performance parameter is AgI burn rate. In general, the effectiveness of a pyrotechnic decreases rapidly and then levels off as the burn rate increases. This same effect has been observed in steady-state systems.

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