Characteristics of the Vertical Profiles of Dual-Frequency, Dual-Polarization Radar Data in Stratiform Rain

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  • 1 National Aeronautics and Space Adminisiration/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland
  • | 2 Communications Research Laboratory, Tokyo, Japan
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Abstract

Airborne dual-wavelength and dual-polarization radar data are analyzed for measurements taken in stratiform rain in the western Pacific during September 1990. The focus of the paper is on the vertical profiles of the linear depolarization ratio, LDR ( 10 GHz); the reflectivity factor, dBZ ( 10 GHz); and the dual-frequency ratio, DFR (10, 34.45 GHz). Statistical characterizations of the maxima of these quantities and the relative locations at which they occur suggest that the eccentricity of the melting particles is fairly large and that the shape and size of the particles are correlated. To try to explain these features, two types of simulation are presented. In the first, a set of measured drop size distributions is used in the context of a standard model of the melting layer. Variations in snow density, as well as shape, size, and orientation distributions are used to study the relationship between these parameters and the radar measurements. To reduce the amount of ambiguity in the estimation, a second type of simulation is described in which the size distribution of the snow is estimated. Comparisons between the simulated and measured profiles indicate that radar measurements can be used to derive certain characteristics of the particle size and shape distributions in the melting layer.

Abstract

Airborne dual-wavelength and dual-polarization radar data are analyzed for measurements taken in stratiform rain in the western Pacific during September 1990. The focus of the paper is on the vertical profiles of the linear depolarization ratio, LDR ( 10 GHz); the reflectivity factor, dBZ ( 10 GHz); and the dual-frequency ratio, DFR (10, 34.45 GHz). Statistical characterizations of the maxima of these quantities and the relative locations at which they occur suggest that the eccentricity of the melting particles is fairly large and that the shape and size of the particles are correlated. To try to explain these features, two types of simulation are presented. In the first, a set of measured drop size distributions is used in the context of a standard model of the melting layer. Variations in snow density, as well as shape, size, and orientation distributions are used to study the relationship between these parameters and the radar measurements. To reduce the amount of ambiguity in the estimation, a second type of simulation is described in which the size distribution of the snow is estimated. Comparisons between the simulated and measured profiles indicate that radar measurements can be used to derive certain characteristics of the particle size and shape distributions in the melting layer.

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