The authors thank Ben Holt for his valuable discussions and suggestions. We also gratefully acknowledge the role of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Alaska SAR Facility in the generation and processing of these images. This work was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Office of Naval Research.
Ballard, D. H., and C. M. Brown, 1982: Computer Vision. Prentice-Hall, 523 pp.
Canny, J., 1986: A computational approach to edge detection. IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Machine Intelligence,8, 679–698.
Cavalieri, D. J., and S. Martin, 1994: The contribution of Alaskan, Siberian, and Canadian coastal polynyas to the cold halocline layer of the Arctic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 18 343–18 362.
Combes, J. M., A. Grossmann, and Ph. Tchamitchian, 1989: Wavelet: Time Frequency Methods and Phase Space. Springer-Verlag, 331 pp.
Kwok, R., J. C. Curlander, R. McConnell, and S. S. Pang, 1990: An ice-motion tracking system at the Alaska SAR Facility. IEEE J. Oceanic Eng.,15, 44–54.
Liu, A. K., and C. Y. Peng, 1993: Synthetic aperture radar for ocean applications. Proc. Symp. on Remote Sensing in Environmental Research and Global Change, Hong Kong, China, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, 167–182.
——, S. Hakkinen, and C. Y. Peng, 1993: Wave effects on ocean–ice interaction in the marginal ice zone. J. Geophys. Res.,98, 10 025–10 036.
——, C. Y. Peng, and T. J. Weingartner, 1994: Ocean–ice interaction in the marginal ice zone using SAR. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 22 391–22 400.
McConnell, R. M., R. Kwok, J. C. Curlander, and S. S. Pang, 1991: Psi-s correlation and dynamic time warping: Two methods for tracking ice floes in SAR images. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.,29, 1004–1012.
Overland, J. E., and R. L. Colony, 1994: Geostrophic drag coefficients for the central Arctic derived from Soviet drifting station data. Tellus,48A, 75–85.
Schalkoff, R. J., 1992: Pattern Recognition: Statistical, Structural, and Neural Approaches. J. Wiley, 364 pp.
Thorndike, A. S., and R. L. Colony, 1982: Sea ice motion in response to geostrophic winds. J. Geophys. Res.,87, 5845–5852.