This work was supported by the Navy Ocean Modeling and Prediction program (Grant N00014-95-1-0258) through the Office of Naval Research.
Blumberg, A., and G. L. Mellor, 1987: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model. Three Dimensional Coastal Models, N. S. Heaps, Ed., Amer. Geophys. Union, 1–16.
——, 1989: A fine-grid three-dimensional M2 tidal model of the East China Sea. Modeling Marine Systems, A. M. Davies, Ed., Vol. 2, CRC Press, 167–185.
Galperin, B., L. H. Kantha, S. Hassid, and A. Rosati, 1988: A quasi-equilibrium turbulent energy model for geophysical flows. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 55–62.
Mellor, G. L., and T. Yamada, 1982: A hierarchy of turbulence closure models for planetary boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci.,31, 1791–1896.
National Geophysical Data Center, 1985: Worldwide gridded bathymetry DBDB5 5-min latitude/longitude grid. Data Announcement 85-MGG-01, NOAA/NGDC, Boulder, CO, 75 pp. [Available from NOAA, NGDC, 325 Broadway, E/GC3, Boulder, CO 80303.].
Shulman, I., 1997: Local data assimilation in specification of open boundary conditions. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,14, 1409–1419.
——, and J. Lewis, 1994: Modeling open boundary conditions by using the optimization approach. Center for Ocean and Atmosph. Modeling, University of Southern Mississippi, TR-1/95, 13 pp. [Available from Institute of Marine Sciences, USM, Bldg. 1103, Room 249, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529.].
——, and ——, 1995: Optimization approach to the treatment of open boundary conditions. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,25, 1006–1011.
——, and ——, 1996: Optimized boundary conditions for coastal modeling. Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, Proc. ASCE 4th Int. Conf. San Diego, CA, ASCE, 268–282.
Smagorinsky, J., 1963: General circulation experiments with the primitive equations. Part I: The basic experiment. Mon. Wea. Rev.,91, 99–164.