The author received an FAA research contract to demonstrate a proprietary (Rubin 1993) radar–acoustic wake vortex sensor (1992–94). Tests at JFK (1994–98) were supported by the FAA, NASA, and Volpe Center. Bob Rudis (Volpe Center) and Dr. Dave Burnham rendered much appreciated assistance during sensor testing. The author is grateful to Jim Jordan and Dr. Dave Carter (NOAA) for equipment support and many helpful discussions, and to Dr. Robert Danehy for his contributions to the vortex signal processing software. The author also acknowledges the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, who furnished test sites at Kennedy and LaGuardia Airports (1992–98), and the JFK tower for changing the runway in use, when safe.
Burnham, D. C., 1997: November 1996 Kennedy Airport wake vortex test: Sensor evaluation. U.S. Dept. of Transportation Project Memo. DOT-VNTSC-FA727-PM-27.
Clifford, S. F., T. Wang, and J. T. Priestly, 1978: Spot size of the radar return from a radar–acoustic sounding system due to atmospheric refractive turbulence. Radio Sci.,13, 985–989.
Currier, P. E., W. L. Ecklund, D. A. Carter, J. M. Warnock, and B. B. Balsely, 1988: Temperature profiling using a UHF wind profiler and an acoustic source. Preprints, Symp. on Lower Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technologies, Boulder, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc. 121–122.
Hallock, J. N., 1991: Aircraft wake vortices: An assessment of the current situation. U.S. Dept. of Transportation Rep. DOT-FAA-RD-90-29, 59 pp. [Available from National Technical Information Service, Sills Bldg., 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161.].
——, and W. R. Aberle, 1977: Aircraft wake vortices: A state-of-the-art review of the U.S. R&D Program. Federal Aviation Administration Rep. FAA-RD-77-23, 326 pp. [Available from National Technical Information Service, Sills Bldg., 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161.].
Hinton, D. A., 1996: An Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) for dynamical wake vortex spacing criteria. AGARD Conf. Proc. 584, The Characteristics and Modification of Wakes from Lifting Vehicles in Fluids, Fluid Dynamics Panel Symp., Trondheim, Norway, AGARD, 1–12.
Marshall, J. M., 1970: A radio-acoustic sounding system for the remote measurement of atmospheric parameters. Radioscience Laboratory Rep. SU-SEL-70-050. [Available from Stanford University Engineering Library, Terman Engineering Center, 2nd Floor, Stanford, CA 94305-4029.].
May, P. T., R. G. Strauch, K. P. Moran, and W. D. Neff, 1989: High resolution weather observations with combined RASS and wind profilers. Proc. 24th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Tallahassee, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 746–749.
North, E. M., A. M. Peterson, and H. D. Pang, 1973: RASS, a remote sensing system for measuring low-level temperature profiles. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,54, 912–919.
Rubin, W. L., 1993: Glide slope surveillance sensor. U.S. Patent No. 5,208,600.
——, D. C. Burnham, E. A. Spitzer, and R. P. Rudis, 1999: A robust low cost airport wake vortex sensor. Preprints, 38th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, NV, AIAA.
Spitzer, E. A., J. N. Hallock, and W. D. Wood, 1977: Status of the vortex advisory system. Proc. Aircraft Wake Vortices Conf., Cambridge, MA, Federal Aviation Administration, 326–334.
Strauch, R. G., K. P. Moran, P. T. May, A. J. Bedard Jr., and W. L. Ecklund, 1989: RASS temperature soundings with wind profiler radars. Preprints, 24th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Tallahassee, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 741–745.