I am grateful to Drs. D. Zrnić and R. Doviak who read the paper and made very useful comments. Discussions with Drs. V. Bringi, J. Hubbert, and J. Vivekanandan also helped to clarify the main ideas presented in this study. I am especially thankful to Dr. S. Matrosov, whose critical remarks allowed me to unveil the error in the computer code that deals with accounting for propagation effects.
Antar, Y. M. M., and A. Hendry, 1987: Correlation techniques in two-channel linearly polarized radar systems. Electromagnetics,7, 17–27.
Aydin, K., and T. A. Seliga, 1984: Radar polarimetric backscattering properties of conical graupel. J. Atmos. Sci.,41, 1887–1892.
Balakrishnan, N., and D. S. Zrnić, 1990: Use of polarization to characterize precipitation and discriminate large hail. J. Atmos. Sci.,47, 1525–1540.
Brandes, E. A., A. V. Ryzhkov, and D. S. Zrnić, 2001: An evaluation of radar rainfall estimates from specific differential phase. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,18, 363–375.
Bringi, V. N., and A. Hendry, 1990: Technology of polarization diversity radars for meteorology. Radar in Meteorology, D. Atlas, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 153–190.
——, V. Chandrasekar, N. Balakrishnan, and D. S. Zrnić, 1990: An examination of propagation effects on radar measurements at microwave frequencies. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,7, 829–840.
Brunkow, D. A., P. C. Kennedy, S. A. Rutledge, V. N. Bringi, and V. Chandrasekar, 1997: CSU-CHILL radar status and comparison of available operating modes. Preprints, 28th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Austin, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 43–44.
Caylor, I. J., and V. Chandrasekar, 1996: Time-varying ice crystal orientation in thunderstorms observed with multiparameter radar. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.,34, 847–858.
Doviak, R. J., V. N. Bringi, A. V. Ryzhkov, A. Zahrai, and D. S. Zrnić, 2000: Considerations for polarimetric upgrades to operational WSR-88D radars. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,17, 257–278.
Hendry, A., Y. M. M. Antar, and G. C. McCormick, 1987: On the relationship between the degree of preferred orientation in precipitation and dual-polarization radar echo characteristics. Radio Sci.,22, 37–50.
Holt, A. R., 1984: Some factors affecting the remote sensing of rain by polarization diversity radar in the 3-to 35-GHz frequency range. Radio Sci.,19, 1399–1412.
——, and J. W. Shepherd, 1979: Electromagnetic scattering by dielectric spheroids in the forward and backward directions. J. Phys. A Math. Gen.,12, 159–166.
——, V. N. Bringi, and D. Brunkow, 1999: A comparison between parameters obtained with the CSU-CHILL radar from simultaneous and switched transmission of vertical and horizontal polarization. Preprints, 29th Int. Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Montreal, PQ, Canada, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 214–217.
Hubbert, J. C., V. N. Bringi, and G. Huang, 1999: Construction and interpretation of S-band covariance matrices. Preprints, 29th Int. Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Montreal, PQ, Canada, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 205–207.
Jameson, A. R., 1985: Deducing the microphysical character of precipitation from multiple-parameter radar polarization measurements. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,24, 1037–1047.
——, 1987: Relations among linear and circular polarization parameters measured in canted hydrometeors. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,4, 634–645.
Krehbiel, P., T. Chen, S. McCrary, W. Rison, G. Gray, and M. Brook, 1996: The use of dual-channel circular-polarization radar observations for remotely sensing storm electrification. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.,59, 65–82.
Lutz, J., B. Rilling, J. Wilson, T. Weckwerth, and J. Vivekanandan, 1997: S-Pol after three operational deployments, technical performances, sitting experiences, and some data examples. Preprints, 28th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Austin, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 286–287.
Matrosov, S. Y., R. F. Reinking, R. A. Kropfli, and B. W. Bartram, 1996:Estimation of ice hydrometeor types and shapes from radar polarization measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,13, 85–96.
McCormick, G. C., and A. Hendry, 1974: Polarization properties of transmission through precipitation over a communication link. J. Rech. Atmos.,8, 175–187.
——, and ——, 1975: Principles for radar determination of the polarization properties of precipitation. Radio Sci.,10, 421–434.
Metcalf, J. I., 1988: A new slant on the distribution and measurement of hydrometeor canting angles. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,5, 571–578.
Oguchi, T., 1983: Electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering in rain and other hydrometeors. Proc. IEEE,71, 1029–1078.
Pruppacher, H. R., and R. L. Pitter, 1971: A semi-empirical determination of the shape of cloud and rain drops. J. Atmos. Sci.,28, 86–94.
Ryzhkov, A. V., 1991: Polarimetric information measurements in radar meteorology. Theoretical model (in Russian). Radioelectron. Commun. Syst.,2, 17–23.
——, and D. S. Zrnić, 1996: Assessment of rainfall measurement that uses specific differential phase. J. Appl. Meteor.,35, 2080–2090.
——, ——, V. N. Bringi, G. Huang, E. A. Brandes, and J. Vivekanandan, 1999: Characteristics of hydrometeor orientation obtained from radar polarimetric measurements in a linear polarization basis. Proc. IGARSS ’99, Hamburg, Germany, IEEE, 702–704.
——, ——, J. C. Hubbert, V. N. Bringi, J. Vivekanandan, and E. A. Brandes, 2000: Interpretation of polarimetric radar covariance matrix for meteorological scatterers. Proc. IGARSS 2000, Honolulu, HI, IEEE, 1584–1586.
Sachidananda, M., and D. S. Zrnić, 1986: Differential propagation phase shift and rainfall rate estimation. Radio Sci.,21, 235–247.
Seliga, T. A., and V. N. Bringi, 1976: Potential use of radar differential reflectivity measurements at orthogonal polarizations for measuring precipitation. J. Appl. Meteor.,15, 69–76.
Straka, M. J., and D. S. Zrnić, 1993: An algorithm to deduce hydrometeor types and contents from multiparameter radar data. Preprints, 26th Int. Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Norman, OK, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 513–515.
Torlaschi, E., and A. R. Holt, 1993: Separation of propagation and backscattering effects in rain for circular polarization diversity S-band radars. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,10, 465–477.
——, and ——, 1998: A comparison of different polarization schemes for the radar sensing of precipitation. Radio Sci.,33, 1335–1352.
Ulbrich, C. W., 1983: Natural variations in the analytical form of the raindrop size distributions. J. Appl. Meteor.,22, 1764–1775.
Vivekanandan, J., W. M. Adams, and V. N. Bringi, 1991: Rigorous approach to polarimetric radar modeling of hydrometeor orientation distributions. J. Appl. Meteor.,30, 1053–1063.
——, D. S. Zrnić, S. M. Ellis, R. Oye, A. V. Ryzhkov, and J. Straka, 1999: Cloud microphysics retrieval using S-band dual-polarization radar measurements. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,80, 381–388.
Zrnić, D. S., 1991: Complete polarimetric and Doppler measurements with a single receiver radar. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,8, 159–165.
——, and A. V. Ryzhkov, 1999: Polarimetry for weather surveillance radars. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,80, 389–406.