We would like to express our thanks to Dr. Yaremchuk of the IPRC for his valuable comments and encouragement. We also would like to express our thanks to Dr. Yoshikawa and Mr. Taguchi for providing us with the Kuroshio regional circulation model for the twin experiment. We thank Ms. Diane Henderson for her careful editorial review. This research was supported by Frontier Research System for Global Change. The IPRC is partly sponsored by the Frontier Research System for Global Change.
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