The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the Office of Naval Research (Grants N00014-96-1-5033 and N00014-98-1-0037) and the field support of the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Program's SHEBA project (OPP-9701831). Also thanks to Don Percival and Bradley Bell for acting as statistical consultants and Tim Peterson for his early advice. Special acknowledgments are given to Miles McPhee for providing instruments and data for all three experiments. Finally, we acknowledge Peter Guest for supplying the ANZFLUX meteorological data and Russ Light and David Morison for their critical roles in AMTV and TIC work during the SHEBA field experiment.
Bartlett, M. C., , and Schlachter T. L. , 1967: Fundamental principles of torpedo dynamics. U.S. Navy Mine Defense Laboratory Tech. Note 134, 97 pp.
Bottaccini, M. R., 1954: The stability coefficients of standard torpedoes. U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station 909, NAVORD Rep. 3346, 94 pp.
Brosseau, J. A., , and Ulbrich H. G. , 1971: Hydrodynamic analysis and test of the APL target vehicle. Lockheed Missiles and Space Company Rep. D244667, 45 pp.
Fleury, M., , and Lueck R. G. , 1994: Direct heat flux estimates using a towed vehicle. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24 , 801–818.
Guest, R. S., 1998: Surface longwave radiation conditions in the eastern Weddell Sea during winter. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , (C13). 30761–30771.
Levine, E. R., , and Lueck R. G. , 1999: Turbulence measurement from an autonomous underwater vehicle. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 16 , 1533–1544.
Lueck, R. G., , and Wolk F. , 1999: An efficient method for determining the significance of covariance estimates. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 16 , 773–775.
McPhee, M. G., 1994: On the turbulent mixing length in the oceanic boundary layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24 , 2014–2031.
McPhee, M. G., , and Stanton T. P. , 1996: Turbulence in the statically unstable oceanic boundary layer under Arctic leads. J. Geophys. Res., 101 ((C3),) 6409–6428.
McPhee, M. G., and Coauthors. . 1996: The Antarctic Zone Flux Experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 1221–1232.
Morison, J. H., , and McPhee M. G. , 1998: Lead convection measured with an autonomous underwater vehicle. J. Geophys. Res., 103 ((C2),) 3257–3281.
Morison, J. H., , McPhee M. G. , , Curtin T. B. , , and Paulson C. A. , 1992: The oceanography of winter leads. J. Geophys. Res., 97 , (C7). 11199–11218.
Moritz, R. E., , and Perovich D. K. , Eds.,. 1996: Surface heat budget of the Arctic Ocean Science Plan. ARCSS/OAII Rep. 5, 64 pp. [Available from Polar Science Center, Applied Physics Lab, 1013 NE 40th St., Seattle, WA 98105.].
Nahon, M., 1996: A simplified dynamics model for autonomous underwater vehicles. Proc. 1996 Symp. on Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Technology, New York, NY, IEEE, 373–379.
Percival, D. B., , and Walden A. T. , 1993: Spectral Analysis for Physical Applications: Multitaper and Conventional Univariate Techniques. Cambridge University Press, 583 pp.
Ruffieux, D., , Persson P. O. G. , , Fairall C. W. , , and Wolfe D. E. , 1995: Ice pack and lead surface energy budgets during LEADEX 1992. J. Geophys. Rev., 100 , (C3). 4593–4612.
Wettlaufer, J. S., , Grae-Worster M. , , and Huppert H. E. , 2000: Solidification of leads: Theory, experiment, and field observations. J. Geophys. Res., 105 ((C1),) 1123–1134.
Yamazaki, H., , and Osborn T. R. , 1993: Direct estimation of heat flux in a seasonal thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23 , 503–516.