Financial and computational support was provided by the NASA Radiation Sciences Program and the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division. We thank three anonymous reviewers and the authors of NASA’s ACE white papers for useful comments. We thank Alexander Avramov for contributions to model analysis.
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Defined as those with τc > 2.5 through the rest of our analysis.
Owing to the complexity of the interactions between microphysics, radiation, and dynamics over a wide range of aerosol and precipitation conditions across three different cases here, it is beyond the scope of this study to attribute changes in various simulation diagnostics to specific mechanisms. However, it is reasonable to expect that behavior similar to that found in past studies using a similar modeling framework can be attributed to similar causes.