The authors thank the directors of Météo-France/DSO and Météo-France/CNRM for having supported this work. They also thank the technicians and engineers from the Centre de Météorologie Radar for their help in obtaining data from the Falaise radar, particularly Laurent Perier.
Bean, B. R., , and Dutton E. J. , 1968: Ratio Meteorology. National Bureau of Standards Monogr., No. 92, National Bureau Standards, 435 pp.
Besson, L., , Boudjabi C. , , Caumont O. , , and Parent du Chatelet J. , 2012: Links between weather phenomena and characterictics of refractivity measured by precipitation radar. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 143, 77–95, doi:10.1007/s10546-011-9656-7.
Curry, J. A., , Ebert E. E. , , and Herman G. F. , 1988: Mean and turbulence structure of the summertime arctic cloudy boundary layer. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 114, 715–746.
Demoz, B., and Coauthors, 2006: The dry line on 22 May 2002 during IHOP 2002: Convective-scale measurements at the profiling site. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 294–310.
Fabry, F., , Frush C. , , Zavadski I. , , and Kilambi A. , 1997: On the extraction of near surface index of refractivity using radar phase measurements from ground targets. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 14, 978–987.
Fritz, J., , and Chandrasekar V. , 2009: Implementation and analysis of networked radar refractivity retrieval. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 26, 2123–2135.
Junyent, F., , Chandrasekar V. , , and Bharadwaj N. , 2009: Uncertainties in phase and frequency estimation with a magnetron radar: Implication for clear air measurements. Proc. IGARSS 2009 Conf., IGARSS, 613–616.
Nutten B., , Amayenc P. , , Chong M. , , Hauser D. , , Roux F. , , and Testud J. , 1979: The RONSARD radars: A versatile C-Band dual Doppler facility. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron., GE-174, 281–288.
Parent du Chatelet, J., , and Boudjabi C. , 2008: A new formulation for signal reflected from a target using a magnetron radar. Consequences for Doppler and refractivity measurements. Extended Abstracts, Fifth European Conf. on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology, Helsinki, Finland, FMI, 0166.
Parent du Chatelet, J., , Tabary P. , , and Boudjabi C. , 2007: Evaluation of the refractivity measurement feasibility with a C band radar equipped with a magnetron transmitter. Preprints, 33rd Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Cairns, Australia, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 8B.6. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/33Radar/techprogram/paper_123581.htm.]
Wakimoto, R. M., , and Murphey H. V. , 2010: Frontal and radar refractivity analyses of the dryline on 11 June 2002 during IHOP. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 228–240.
Throughout the paper we use the notation τ for delay after the transmission pulse, and t for time measurement in the sense of minutes or hours. The function n(x, t) is assumed constant during the few radars pulses needed for an individual measurement.