This project was funded by Grant 0924407 from the National Science Foundation’s Physical and Dynamic Meteorology Program. NCAR EOL In-situ Sensing Facility staff provided the tower data. NVIDIA Corporation provided a C2070 GPU card to perform the calculations.
Browning, K. A., , and Wexler R. , 1968: The determination of kinematic properties of a wind field using a Doppler radar. J. Appl. Meteor., 7, 105–113.
Chen, W., , Beister M. , , Kyriakou Y. , , and Kachelrieß M. , 2009: High performance median filtering using commodity graphics hardware. IEEE Nuclear Science Symp., Orlando, FL, IEEE, 4142–4147.
Eloranta, E. W., , King J. M. , , and Weinman J. A. , 1975: The determination of wind speeds in the boundary layer by monostatic lidar. J. Appl. Meteor., 14, 1485–1489.
Finnigan, J. J., , Shaw R. H. , , and Patton E. G. , 2009: Turbulence structure above a vegetation canopy. J. Fluid Mech., 637, 387–424.
Hooper, W. P., , and Eloranta E. W. , 1986: Lidar measurements of wind in the planetary boundary layer: The method, accuracy and results from joint measurements with radiosonde and kytoon. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 25, 990–1001.
Kachelrieß, M., 2009: Branchless vectorized median filtering. IEEE Nuclear Science Symp., Orlando, FL, IEEE, 4099–4105.
Kaimal, J. C., , and Finnigan J. J. , 1994: Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows. Oxford University Press, 289 pp.
Kolev, I., , Parvanov O. , , and Kaprielov B. , 1988: Lidar determination of winds by aerosol inhomogeneities: Motion velocity in the planetary boundary layer. Appl. Opt., 27, 2524–2531.
Kunkel, K. E., , Eloranta E. W. , , and Weinman J. , 1980: Remote determination of winds, turbulence spectra and energy dissipation rates in the boundary layer from lidar measurements. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 978–985.
Mann, J., and Coauthors, 2009: Comparison of 3D turbulence measurements using three staring wind lidars and a sonic anemometer. Meteor. Z., 18, 135–140.
Mayor, S. D., , and Eloranta E. W. , 2001: Two-dimensional vector wind fields from volume imaging lidar data. J. Appl. Meteor., 40, 1331–1346.
Mayor, S. D., , Spuler S. M. , , Morley B. M. , , and Loew E. , 2007: Polarization lidar at 1.54-μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators. Opt. Eng., 46, 096201, doi:10.1117/1.2786406.
Newsom, R. K., , and Banta R. M. , 2004a: Assimilating coherent Doppler lidar measurements into a model of the atmospheric boundary layer. Part I: Algorithm development and sensitivity to measurement error. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 21, 1328–1345.
Newsom, R. K., , and Banta R. M. , 2004b: Assimilating coherent Doppler lidar measurements into a model of the atmospheric boundary layer. Part II: Sensitivity analyses. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 21, 1809–1824.
Newsom, R. K., , Ligon D. , , Calhoun R. , , Heap R. , , Cregan E. , , and Princevac M. , 2005: Retrieval of microscale wind and temperature fields from single- and dual-Doppler lidar data. J. Appl. Meteor., 44, 1324–1345.
Patton, E. G., and Coauthors, 2011: The Canopy Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (CHATS). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92, 593–611.
Piironen, A. K., , and Eloranta E. W. , 1995: Accuracy analysis of wind profiles calculated from volume imaging lidar data. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 25 559–25 567.
Rye, B. J., , and Hardesty R. M. , 1993a: Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. I. Spectral accumulation and the Cramer-Rao lower bound. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 31, 16–27.
Rye, B. J., , and Hardesty R. M. , 1993b: Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. II. Correlogram accumulation. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 31, 28–35.
Sasano, Y., , Hirohara H. , , Yamasaki T. , , Shimizu H. , , Takeuchi N. , , and Kawamura T. , 1982: Horizontal wind vector determination from the displacement of aerosol distribution patterns observed by a scanning lidar. J. Appl. Meteor., 21, 1516–1523.
Schols, J. L., , and Eloranta E. W. , 1992: The calculation of area-averaged vertical profiles of the horizontal wind velocity from volume imaging lidar data. J. Geophys. Res., 97 (D17), 18 395–18 407.
Shaw, R. H., , Brunet Y. , , Finnigan J. J. , , and Raupach M. R. , 1995: A wind tunnel study of air flow in waving wheat: two-point velocity statistics. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 76, 349–376.
Spuler, S. M., , and Mayor S. D. , 2005: Scanning eye-safe elastic backscatter lidar at 1.54 μm. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 22, 696–703.
Spuler, S. M., , and Mayor S. D. , 2007: Eye-safe aerosol lidar at 1.5 microns: Progress towards a scanning lidar network. Lidar Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring VIII, U. N. Singh, Ed., International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 6681), 668102, doi:10.1117/12.739519.
Sroga, J. T., , Eloranta E. W. , , and Barber T. , 1980: Lidar measurements of wind velocity profiles in the boundary layer. J. Appl. Meteor., 19, 598–605.
Su, H.-B., , Shaw R. H. , , and Paw U K. T. , 2000: Two-point correlation analysis of neutrally stratified flow within and above a forest from large-eddy simulation. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 94, 423–460.
Sullivan, P. P., , and Patton E. G. , 2011: The effect of mesh resolution on convective boundary layer statistics and structures generated by large-eddy simulation. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 2395–2415.
Because of the trenching and flooding of a nearby irrigation ditch after the installation of the lidar, one side of the lidar trailer occasionally stood in mud while the other side was on dry soil. Staff attempted to compensate for the sinking of the one side by periodically adjusting the leveling system. However, measurements and records were not kept. Note: a 1-mm change in the height of one side of the trailer may have resulted in a 0.5-m change in the height of the beam at the tower.
The central column of the tower was 32 cm wide. Guy wires 0.47 cm in diameter were attached to the tower at four heights on the tower. Guy wires from 7.9 and 18.8 m AGL were anchored into the ground 13.4 m from the tower base. Guy wires 23.8 and 32.0 m AGL were anchored into the ground 26.8 m from the base.
The transmitted beam falls entirely within the receiver’s field of view by approximately 500-m range.
The associated hard-target returns from these trees were located in a region near 1.50–1.65 km south and 0.35 km west of the lidar.
Given a pulse rate of 10 Hz, an angular scan rate of 4° s−1, and a digitizer speed of 100 megasamples per second, the number of data points in the native spherical coordinate system of the lidar fall into blocks that are 250 m × 250 m, 500 m × 500 m, 750 m × 750 m, and 1 km × 1 km, and centered on the VT are 3692, 14 885, 33 650, and 60 222, respectively. After interpolation to a Cartesian grid with spacing of 10 m in both east–west and north–south dimensions, the number of points (or pixels) in the blocks are 625, 2500, 5625, and 10 000, respectively.
Of the 500 m × 500 m block 78% was over orchard while the remaining northern 22% was over bare fields or relatively short crops, such as tomato plants. Of the 750 m × 750 m block 68% was over orchard and 32% was over nonorchard. The 1 km × 1 km block was 63% over orchard and 37% over nonorchard.