The first author was supported by a National Research Council Research Associateship Award at the NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory. We thank Conrad Ziegler for his helpful review of a preliminary draft of this manuscript. We are also grateful to Yvette Richardson and two anonymous reviewers for their help in further improving the paper.
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We performed dual-Doppler analyses every ΔT + 30 s rather than every ΔT to account for the time required for the radar dish to return to its base tilt.
The theoretical response function for the two-pass Barnes scheme is sharper than those of both the one-pass Barnes and Cressman methods, and was shown to reduce dual-Doppler retrieval errors in the OSSEs of Majcen et al. (2008). Unfortunately, our implementation of the adjoint for the two-pass Barnes scheme was prohibitively computationally expensive, so we did not examine the impact of using that scheme. However, this does not indicate a fundamental limitation of the 3DVAR approach since (i) the adjoint wall clock time should be considerably reduced by parallelizing the code, and (ii) it may be possible to implement an approximated version of the adjoint that greatly reduces computational cost with minimal loss of accuracy (one or both strategies may be tested in future work). Furthermore, the relative insensitivity of our results to the interpolation method used (see below) suggests that the analysis degradation due to using a one-pass scheme is less in the 3DVAR DDA framework than in traditional methods.