This validation of the model could not have been accomplished without Mr. John P. Carey. Mr. Carey, who lives in Hoboken, provided valuable first-hand information about the flooding in Hoboken during Hurricane Sandy and personally introduced the authors of this paper to many individuals. He led the crowdsourcing effort. Thanks also go to the Hoboken Historical Museum for all the Sandy stories they accumulated and shared with us. We appreciate the efforts of Greg Seroka, Louis Bowers, and Scott Glenn for providing us with the Rutgers WRF meteorological forecasts of Sandy. The study was supported by GORR, The state of New Jersey’s Governor’s Office of Recovery and Rebuilding under Project EC14-001 and by NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX12AI28G.
Bhushan, S., , Blumberg A. F. , , and Georgas N. , 2010: Comparison of NYHOPS hydrodynamic model SST predictions with satellite observations in the Hudson River tidal, estuarine, and coastal plume region. Estuarine and Coastal Modeling: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference, M. L. Spaulding, Ed., American Society of Civil Engineers, 11–26.
Blumberg, A. F., , and Mellor G. L. , 1987: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model. Three-Dimensional Coastal Ocean Models, N. S. Heaps, Ed., Coastal and Estuarine Sciences, Vol. 4, Amer. Geophys. Union, 1–16.
Blumberg, A. F., , Khan L. A. , , and John J. P. St. , 1999: Three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of New York Harbor region. J. Hydraul. Eng., 125, 799–816, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1999)125:8(799).
Bruno, M. S., , Blumberg A. F. , , and Herrington T. O. , 2006: The urban ocean observatory—Coastal ocean observations and forecasting in the New York Bight. J. Mar. Sci. Environ., C4, 1–9.
Creel, L., 2003: Ripple effects and: population and coastal regions. Population Reference Bureau, 8 pp. [Available online at http://www.prb.org/pdf/RippleEffects_Eng.pdf.]
Di Liberto, T. E., , Cole B. A. , , Georgas N. , , Blumberg A. F. , , and Taylor A. A. , 2011: Verification of multiple storm surge models and ensembles for the New York City metropolitan region. Wea. Forecasting, 26, 922–939, doi:10.1175/WAF-D-10-05055.1.
Donelan, M. A., 1977: A simple numerical model for wave and wind stress prediction. Rep., National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 28 pp.
Fan, S. A., , Blumberg A. F. , , Bruno M. S. , , Kruger D. , , and Fullerton B. , 2006: The skill of an urban ocean forecast system. Estuarine and Coastal Modeling: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference, M. L. Spaulding, Ed., American Society of Civil Engineers, 603–618.
FEMA, 2014: Region II coastal terrain processing methodology documentation report. Final Draft Rep., Prepared by Risk Assessment, Mapping, and Planning Partners (RAMPP), 48 pp.
FEMA Modeling Task Force, 2014: FEMA MOTF Hurricane Sandy impact analysis. Federal Emergency Management Agency Modeling Task Force, accessed 6 January 2014. [Available online at http://www.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=307dd522499d4a44a33d7296a5da5ea0.]
Georgas, N., 2010: Establishing confidence in marine forecast systems: The design of a high fidelity marine forecast model for the NY/NJ harbor estuary and its adjoining waters. Ph.D. dissertation, Stevens Institute of Technology, 272 pp.
Georgas, N., , and Blumberg A. F. , 2008: The New York Bight shelf–harbor dynamic study: Ocean forecast sensitivity to forecasts of atmospheric forcing. Office of Naval Research Final Rep., 50 pp. [Available online at http://www.stevens.edu/ses/documents/fileadmin/documents/pdf/NYBight_ONR08_Stevens.pdf.]
Georgas, N., , and Blumberg A. F. , 2010: Establishing confidence in marine forecast systems: The design and skill assessment of the New York Harbor Observation and Prediction System, version 3 (NYHOPS v3). Estuarine and Coastal Modeling: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference, M. L. Spaulding, Ed., American Society of Civil Engineers, 660–685.
Georgas, N., , Blumberg A. F. , , and Herrington T. O. , 2007: An operational coastal wave forecasting model for New Jersey and Long Island waters. Shore Beach, 75, 30–35.
Georgas, N., , Blumberg A. F. , , Bruno M. S. , , and Runnels D. S. , 2009a: Marine forecasting for the New York urban waters and harbor approaches: The design and automation of NYHOPS. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Experiments/Process/System Modeling/Simulation and Optimization, D. T. Tsahalis, Ed., Vol. 1, University of Patras, 345–352.
Georgas, N., , Li W. , , and Blumberg A. F. , 2009b: Investigation of coastal CDOM distributions using in-situ and remote sensing observations and a predictive CDOM fate and transport model. Office of Naval Research Ocean Battleship Sensing Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Reports CD, Ocean Battleship Sensing Science and Technology Dept., Office of Naval Research, 23 pp. [Available online at http://www.stevens.edu/ses/documents/fileadmin/documents/pdf/GeorgasLiBlumberg.pdf.]
Georgas, N., , Orton P. , , Blumberg A. F. , , Cohen L. , , Zarrilli D. , , and Yin L. , 2014: The impact of tidal phase on Hurricane Sandy’s flooding around New York City and Long Island Sound. J. Extreme Events, 1, 1450006, doi:10.1142/S2345737614500067.
Grant, W. D., , and Madsen O. S. , 1979: Combined wave and current interaction with a rough bottom. J. Geophys. Res., 84, 1797–1808, doi:10.1029/JC084iC04p01797.
Hallegatte, S., , Green C. , , Nicholls R. J. , , and Corfee-Morlot J. , 2013: Future flood losses in major coastal cities. Nat. Climate Change, 3, 802–806, doi:10.1038/nclimate1979.
Horton, R., , Little C. , , Gornitz V. , , Bader D. , , and Oppenheimer M. , 2015: New York City Panel on Climate Change 2015 report chapter 2: Sea level rise and coastal storms. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1336, 36–44, doi:10.1111/nyas.12593.
Jelesnianski, C. P., 1965: A numerical calculation of storm tides induced by a tropical storm impinging on a continental shelf. Mon. Wea. Rev., 93, 343–358, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1993)093<0343:ANCOS>2.3.CO;2.
Jordi, A., , and Wang D.-P. , 2012: sbPOM: A parallel implementation of Princeton Ocean Model. Environ. Modell. Software, 38, 59–61, doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.05.013.
McCallum, B. E., and et al. , 2012: Monitoring storm tide and flooding from Hurricane Sandy along the Atlantic Coast of the United States. USGS Open-File Rep. 2013-1043, 42 pp. [Available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1043/.]
Medeiros, S. C., , and Hagen S. C. , 2013: Review of wetting and drying algorithms for numerical tidal flow models. Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 71, 473–487, doi:10.1002/fld.3668.
Miller, J., , Gordon A. , , and Herrington T. O. , 2009: Development of the Stevens Dynamic Underwater and Coastal Kinematic Surveying (DUCKS) System. Davidson Laboratory Tech. Rep. TR-2878, 15 pp.
NOAA, 2013: National coastal population report: Population trends from 1970 to 2020. NOAA’s State of the Coast Rep., 3–4. [Available online at http://stateofthecoast.noaa.gov/features/coastal-population-report.pdf.]
NOAA, 2014: National Hurricane Center to issue new storm surge map. National Weather Service, 2 pp. [Available online at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/news/20140131_pa_stormSurgeGraphic.pdf.]
NOAA Coastal Services Center, 2012: Method description: Detailed methodology for mapping sea level rise inundation. 5 pp. [Available online at http://coast.noaa.gov/slr/assets/pdfs/Inundation_Methods.pdf.]
Oey, L.-Y., 2006: A OGCM with movable land–sea boundaries. Ocean Modell.,13, 176–195, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2006.01.001.
Orton, P., and et al. , 2015: New York City Panel on Climate Change 2015 report chapter 4: Dynamic coastal flood modeling. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1336, 56–66, doi:10.1111/nyas.12589.
Talke, S., , Orton P. , , and Jay D. , 2014: Increasing storm tides at New York City, 1844–2013. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 3149–3155, doi:10.1002/2014GL059574.
Taylor, P. K., , and Yelland M. J. , 2001: The dependence of sea surface roughness on the height and steepness of the waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 572–590, doi:10.1175/1520-0485(2001)031<0572:TDOSSR>2.0.CO;2.
USGS, 2014: Hurricane Sandy storm tide mapper. U.S. Geological Survey, accessed 6 January 2014. [Available online at https://water.usgs.gov/floods/events/2012/sandy/sandymapper.html.]
Walsh, J., and et al. , 2014: Our changing climate. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment, J. M. Melillo, T. C. Richmond, and G. W. Yohe, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, 19–67.
Wang, H. V., , Loftis J. D. , , Liu Z. , , Forrest D. , , and Zhang J. , 2014: The storm surge and sub-grid inundation modeling in New York City during Hurricane Sandy. J. Mar. Sci. Eng., 2, 226–246, doi:10.3390/jmse2010226.
Westerink, J. J., and et al. , 2008: A basin- to channel-scale unstructured grid hurricane storm surge model applied to southern Louisiana. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 833–864, doi:10.1175/2007MWR1946.1.
Zheng, L., and et al. , 2013: Implications from the comparisons between two- and three-dimensional model simulations of the Hurricane Ike storm surge. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 118, 3350–3369, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20248.