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Improved Severe Weather Forecasts Using LEO and GEO Satellite Soundings

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  • 1 Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia, and Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin
  • 2 Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia
  • 3 Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin
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Abstract

It is shown here that improvements in numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forecasts of hazardous weather can be obtained by assimilating profile retrievals obtained in real time from combined direct broadcast system (DBS) polar satellite hyperspectral and geostationary satellite multispectral radiance data. Results of NWP model forecasts are shown for two recent tornado outbreak cases: 1) the 3 March 2019 tornado outbreak over the southeast United States and 2) the tornado outbreak that occurred across Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio during the night of 27 May and the morning of 28 May 2019, and 3) the 4 March 2019 severe precipitation event that occurred in southeast China. Improvements in both quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) and predictions of the location of tornado occurrence are obtained. It is also shown that geostationary satellite hyperspectral soundings [i.e., Fengyun-4A (FY-4A) Geosynchronous Interferometric Infrared Sounder (GIIRS)] further improve hazardous precipitation forecasts when used, in addition to the combined polar hyperspectral and geostationary multispectral satellite profile data, to initialize the numerical forecast model. The lowest false alarm rate (FAR) and the highest probability of detection (POD) and critical success index (CSI) scores are achieved when assimilating atmospheric profile retrievals obtained by combining all the available satellite high-vertical-resolution hyperspectral radiance measurements with geostationary satellite high-spatial-resolution and high-temporal-resolution multispectral radiance measurements.

Corresponding author: Prof. William L. Smith Sr., bill.l.smithsr@gmail.com

Abstract

It is shown here that improvements in numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forecasts of hazardous weather can be obtained by assimilating profile retrievals obtained in real time from combined direct broadcast system (DBS) polar satellite hyperspectral and geostationary satellite multispectral radiance data. Results of NWP model forecasts are shown for two recent tornado outbreak cases: 1) the 3 March 2019 tornado outbreak over the southeast United States and 2) the tornado outbreak that occurred across Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio during the night of 27 May and the morning of 28 May 2019, and 3) the 4 March 2019 severe precipitation event that occurred in southeast China. Improvements in both quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) and predictions of the location of tornado occurrence are obtained. It is also shown that geostationary satellite hyperspectral soundings [i.e., Fengyun-4A (FY-4A) Geosynchronous Interferometric Infrared Sounder (GIIRS)] further improve hazardous precipitation forecasts when used, in addition to the combined polar hyperspectral and geostationary multispectral satellite profile data, to initialize the numerical forecast model. The lowest false alarm rate (FAR) and the highest probability of detection (POD) and critical success index (CSI) scores are achieved when assimilating atmospheric profile retrievals obtained by combining all the available satellite high-vertical-resolution hyperspectral radiance measurements with geostationary satellite high-spatial-resolution and high-temporal-resolution multispectral radiance measurements.

Corresponding author: Prof. William L. Smith Sr., bill.l.smithsr@gmail.com
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