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Heat Exchange Ratios of Hailstones in a Model Cloud and their Simulation in a Laboratory

R. ListUniversity of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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P. H. SchueppUniversity of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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R. G. J. MethotUniversity of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Abstract

Calculations are presented of the relative contributions of heat exchange by conduction and convection, by evaporation, and by the supercooling of accreted drops to the total heat exchange of growing spherical hailstones. They reveal the regions of dominance of the different ratios for various icing conditions in a model cloud and in laboratory experiments. As an additional result, it can be shown that transfer ratios occurring in hail clouds can only partly be simulated in experiments at constant pressure, but a restricted imitation at constant pressure is possible. These ratios are also considered to represent new parameters for future experiments about the relationship between icing conditions and resulting hailstone shells.

Abstract

Calculations are presented of the relative contributions of heat exchange by conduction and convection, by evaporation, and by the supercooling of accreted drops to the total heat exchange of growing spherical hailstones. They reveal the regions of dominance of the different ratios for various icing conditions in a model cloud and in laboratory experiments. As an additional result, it can be shown that transfer ratios occurring in hail clouds can only partly be simulated in experiments at constant pressure, but a restricted imitation at constant pressure is possible. These ratios are also considered to represent new parameters for future experiments about the relationship between icing conditions and resulting hailstone shells.

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