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The Liquid Water Content of Hailstones

Sonia N. GitlinNational Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo.

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Guy G. GoyerNational Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo.

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Thomas J. HendersonAtmospherics Inc., Fresno, Calif.

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Abstract

Calorimetric measurements of hailstones in Kenya, Africa, showed that 57% of the samples contained no water; these hailstones were described as hard. The average water content for the remaining samples was 4.2% almost all of these had a clear outer shell of soft ice. In Colorado and South Dakota, liquid water content of hailstones from five storms tended to decrease from an average of 14.6% for soft, small, opaque hailstones collected in June, to 0.4% for large, mostly clear hailstones collected in August.

Abstract

Calorimetric measurements of hailstones in Kenya, Africa, showed that 57% of the samples contained no water; these hailstones were described as hard. The average water content for the remaining samples was 4.2% almost all of these had a clear outer shell of soft ice. In Colorado and South Dakota, liquid water content of hailstones from five storms tended to decrease from an average of 14.6% for soft, small, opaque hailstones collected in June, to 0.4% for large, mostly clear hailstones collected in August.

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