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The GISS Model of the Global Atmosphere

R.C.J. SomervilleInstitute for Space Studies, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, New York, N. Y. 10025

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P.H. StoneInstitute for Space Studies, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, New York, N. Y. 10025

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M. HalemInstitute for Space Studies, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, New York, N. Y. 10025

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J.E. HansenInstitute for Space Studies, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, New York, N. Y. 10025

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J.S. HoganInstitute for Space Studies, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, New York, N. Y. 10025

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L.M. DruyanInstitute for Space Studies, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, New York, N. Y. 10025

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G. RussellInstitute for Space Studies, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, New York, N. Y. 10025

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A.A. LacisInstitute for Space Studies, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, New York, N. Y. 10025

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W.J. QuirkInstitute for Space Studies, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, New York, N. Y. 10025

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J. TenenbaumInstitute for Space Studies, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, New York, N. Y. 10025

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Abstract

A model description and numerical results are presented for a global atmospheric circulation model developed at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS). The model version described is a 9-level primitive-equation model in sigma coordinates. It includes a realistic distribution of continents, oceans and topography. Detailed calculations of energy transfer by solar and terrestrial radiation make use of cloud and water vapor fields calculated by the model. The model hydrologic cycle includes two precipitation mechanisms: large-scale supersaturation and a parameterization of subgrid-scale cumulus convection.

Results are presented both from a comparison of the 13th to the 43rd days (January) of one integration with climatological statistics, and from five short-range forecasting experiments. In the extended integration, the near-equilibrium January-mean model atmosphere exhibits an energy cycle in good agreement with observational estimates, together with generally realistic zonal mean fields of winds, temperature, humidity, transports, diabatic heating, evaporation, precipitation, and cloud cover. In the five forecasting experiments, after 48 hr, the average rms error in temperature is 3.9K, and the average rms error in 500-mb height is 62 m. The model is successful in simulating the 2-day evolution of the major features of the observed sea level pressure and 500-mb height fields in a region surrounding North America.

1Computer Sciences Corporation, New York, N.Y.

2State University of New York, Purchase, N.Y.

Abstract

A model description and numerical results are presented for a global atmospheric circulation model developed at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS). The model version described is a 9-level primitive-equation model in sigma coordinates. It includes a realistic distribution of continents, oceans and topography. Detailed calculations of energy transfer by solar and terrestrial radiation make use of cloud and water vapor fields calculated by the model. The model hydrologic cycle includes two precipitation mechanisms: large-scale supersaturation and a parameterization of subgrid-scale cumulus convection.

Results are presented both from a comparison of the 13th to the 43rd days (January) of one integration with climatological statistics, and from five short-range forecasting experiments. In the extended integration, the near-equilibrium January-mean model atmosphere exhibits an energy cycle in good agreement with observational estimates, together with generally realistic zonal mean fields of winds, temperature, humidity, transports, diabatic heating, evaporation, precipitation, and cloud cover. In the five forecasting experiments, after 48 hr, the average rms error in temperature is 3.9K, and the average rms error in 500-mb height is 62 m. The model is successful in simulating the 2-day evolution of the major features of the observed sea level pressure and 500-mb height fields in a region surrounding North America.

1Computer Sciences Corporation, New York, N.Y.

2State University of New York, Purchase, N.Y.

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