A Note on Orographically Induced Instabilities in Two-Layer Models

Erland Källén Institute of Meteorology and Oceanography. University of Utrecht. Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht. The Netherlands

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Abstract

In a low-order, two-layer model with orographic and zonal thermal and momentum forcing, two different types of orographically induced instabilities exist. One is of a barotropic nature with a westerly flow in the bottom layer, while the other one is close to a baroclinic instability of the basic long wave and has a very weak westerly or easterly bottom layer flow.

Abstract

In a low-order, two-layer model with orographic and zonal thermal and momentum forcing, two different types of orographically induced instabilities exist. One is of a barotropic nature with a westerly flow in the bottom layer, while the other one is close to a baroclinic instability of the basic long wave and has a very weak westerly or easterly bottom layer flow.

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