Rain Production in Convective Clouds As Simulated in an Axisymmetric Model with Detailed Microphysics. Part I: Description of the Model

Tamir Reisin Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel

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Zev Levin Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel

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Shalva Tzivion Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel

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Abstract

A hydrodynamic nonhydrostatic anelastic numerical model of an axisymmetric convective cloud is described in which the microphysical processes are treated in detail for different species of hydrometeors: drops. ice crystals, graupel, and snow particles. The size distribution function for each type of particle is divided into 34 spectral bins. In each spectral category two physical moments of the distribution function (number and mass concentrations are independently calculated using the method of moments. The following physical processes are computed: nucleation of drops and ice crystals, freezing of drops, diffusional growth/evaporation of drops and ice particles, collisional coalescence of drops and ice particles, binary breakup of drops, melting of ice particles, and sedimentation. The model describes the different stages of cloud development, the formation of ice, its growth by deposition and riming, the formation of graupel, and the precipitation stage. Analysis of the distribution functions for the different species provides insight into the different microphysical processes active in rain formation in mixed clouds. As an illustration of the capability of the model, the simulation of a mixed-phase continental cloud is presented.

Abstract

A hydrodynamic nonhydrostatic anelastic numerical model of an axisymmetric convective cloud is described in which the microphysical processes are treated in detail for different species of hydrometeors: drops. ice crystals, graupel, and snow particles. The size distribution function for each type of particle is divided into 34 spectral bins. In each spectral category two physical moments of the distribution function (number and mass concentrations are independently calculated using the method of moments. The following physical processes are computed: nucleation of drops and ice crystals, freezing of drops, diffusional growth/evaporation of drops and ice particles, collisional coalescence of drops and ice particles, binary breakup of drops, melting of ice particles, and sedimentation. The model describes the different stages of cloud development, the formation of ice, its growth by deposition and riming, the formation of graupel, and the precipitation stage. Analysis of the distribution functions for the different species provides insight into the different microphysical processes active in rain formation in mixed clouds. As an illustration of the capability of the model, the simulation of a mixed-phase continental cloud is presented.

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