The author would like to thank Dr. G. Philander for stimulating discussions and two anonymous reviewers for their insight and comments, which helped improve the manuscript. Comments given by Drs. S. Manabe, I. Held, G. Lau, B. Wang, P. Chang, S. Xie, G. Lambert, D. Neelin, S. Chang, T. Hogan, and C. Reynolds are greatly appreciated. Part of this work was done while the author was a visiting scientist at the Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Program of Princeton University, supported by NOAA Grant NA26G0102-01 and NASA Grant NASANAG 5-2224. Additional work was supported by the Office of Naval Research under program element 0601153N-R3103. The author acknowledges the use of computer facilities at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory and thanks Mr. S. Bishop for his editorial assistance.
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