Anderson, D. L. T., and J. P. McCreary, 1985: On the role of the Indian Ocean in a coupled ocean–atmosphere model of El Niño and the Southern Oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci.,42, 2439–2442.
Barnett, T. P., 1985: Variations in near-global sea level pressure. J. Atmos. Sci.,42, 478–501.
Battisti, D. S., and A. C. Hirst, 1989: Interannual variability in a tropical atmosphere–ocean model: Influence of the basic state, ocean geometry and nonlinearity. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 1687–1712.
Bjerknes, J., 1969: Atmospheric teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev.,97, 163–172.
Cane, M. A., and S. E. Zebiak, 1985: A theory for El Niño and the Southern Oscillation. Science,228, 1084–1087.
Chang, H-R., and P. J. Webster, 1995: Studying the mechanisms of international variability with a coupled ocean–atmosphere model. Extended Abstracts, TOGA 95 Int. Conf., Melbourne, Australia, TOGA, 147.
Goswami, P., and B. N. Goswami, 1991: Modification of n = 0 equatorial waves due to interaction between convection and dynamics. J. Atmos. Sci.,48, 2231–2244.
Hirst, A. C., 1988: Slow instabilities in tropical ocean basin–global atmospheric models. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 830–852.
Horel, J. D., 1982: The annual cycle in the tropical Pacific atmosphere and ocean. Mon. Wea. Rev.,110, 1863–1878.
Krishnamurti, T. N., S. H. Chu, and W. Iglesian, 1986: On the sea level pressures of the Southern Oscillation. Arch. Meteor. Geophys. Bioclimatol. Ser. A,34, 385–425.
Lau, K. M., 1981: Oscillation in a simple equatorial climate system. J. Atmos. Sci.,38, 248–261.
——, and S. Shen, 1988: On the dynamics of intraseasonal oscillation and ENSO. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 1781–1797.
Lau, N. C., S. G. H. Philander, and M. J. Nath, 1992: Simulation of low ENSO-like phenomena with a resolution coupled GCM of the global ocean and atmosphere. J. Climate,5, 284–307.
Miller, R. L., and X. J. Jiang, 1995: Surface heat fluxes and coupled variabilities in the Tropics of a coupled general circulation model. Extended Abstracts, TOGA 95 Int. Conf., Melbourne, Australia, TOGA, 328.
Neelin, J. D., 1991: The slow sea surface temperature mode and the fast wave limit: Analytic theory for tropical interannual oscillations and experiments in a hybrid coupled model. J. Atmos. Sci.,48, 584–606.
——, and I. M. Held 1987: Modeling tropical convergence based on the moist static energy budget. Mon. Wea. Rev.,115, 3–12.
Nigam, S., and H. S. Shen, 1993: Structure of oceanic and atmospheric low frequency variability over the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. Part I: COADS observations. J. Climate,6, 657–677.
Philander, S. G. H., 1992: Ocean–atmosphere interaction in the tropics: A review of recent theories and models. J. Appl. Meteor.,31, 938–945.
Schopf, P. S., and M. J. Suarez, 1988: A delayed action oscillator for ENSO. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 3283–3287.
Tourre, Y. M., and W. B. White, 1995: ENSO signals in global upper ocean temperatures. Extended Abstracts, TOGA 95 Int. Conf., Melbourne, Australia, TOGA, 119–120.
Yasunari, T., 1987: Global structure of the El-Niño/Southern Oscillation. Part I: El-Niño composites. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,65, 65–80.