I would like to thank the Meteorological Office of the United Kingdom for making their “Unified Model” GCM available for my use. Special thanks go to Prof. B. J. Hoskins, Dr. J. M. Slingo, and Dr. M. Blackburn for numerous discussions on this topic. I would like to record my gratitude to Dr. P. Berrisford, Dr. J. Cole, and Dr. C. Jones for their considerable help with datasets and models.
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