We wish to thank Dr. Timothy Dunkerton for helpful discussions. This research was supported by the Physical Meteorology Program of the National Science Foundation under Grant ATM-9322480 and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant NAG-1-1803.
Alexander, M. J., and L. Pfister, 1995: Gravity wave momeotum flux in the stratosphere over convection. Geophys. Res. Lett.,22, 2029–2032.
———, and K. H. Rosenlof, 1996: Non-stationary gravity wave forcing of the stratospheric zonal mean wind. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 23 465–23 474.
———, J. R. Holton, and D. R. Durran, 1995: The gravity wave response above deep convection in a squall line simulation. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 2212–2226.
Allen, S. J., and R. A. Vincent, 1995: Gravity wave activity in the lower atmosphere: Seasonal and latitudinal variations. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 1327–1350.
Andrews, D. G., J. R. Holton, and C. B. Leovy, 1987: Middle Atmospheric Dynamics. Academic Press, 489 pp.
Bergman, J. W., and M. L. Salby, 1994: Equatorial wave activity derived from fluctuations in observed convection. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 3791–3806.
Chen, S.S., R.A. Houze Jr., and B.E. Mapes, 1996: Multiscale variability of deep convection in relation to large-scale circulation in TOGA COARE. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 1380–1409.
Dunkerton, T. J., 1991: Nonlinear propagation of zonal winds in an atmosphere with Newtonian cooling and equatorial wavedriving. J. Atmos. Sci.,48, 236–263.
———, 1996: The role of gravity waves in the quasi-biennial oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., in press.
———, and D. P. Delisi, 1985: Climatology of the equatorial lower stratosphere. J. Atmos. Sci.,42, 376–396.
Durran, D. R., 1995: Do breaking mountain waves decelerate the local mean flow? J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 4010–4032.
———, and J. B. Klemp, 1983: A compressible model for the simulation of moist mountain waves. Mon. Wea. Rev.,111, 2341–2361.
Fovell, R., D. Durran, and J. R. Holton, 1992: Numerical simulations of convectively generated stratospheric gravity waves. J. Atmos. Sci.,49, 1427–1442.
Gray, L. J., and J. A. Pyle, 1989: A two-dimensional model of the quasi-biennial oscillation of ozone. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 203–220.
Hamilton, K., and R. A. Vincent, 1995: High-resolution radiosonde data offer new prospects for research. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union,76, 497–507.
Holton, J. R., 1972: Waves in the equatorial stratosphere generated by tropospheric heat sources. J. Atmos. Sci.,29, 368–375.
———, 1992: Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology. Academic Press, 511 pp.
———, and R. S. Lindzen, 1972: An updated theory for the quasi-biennial cycle of the tropical stratosphere. J. Atmos. Sci.,29, 1076–1080.
———, P. H. Haynes, M. E. McIntyre, A. R. Douglass, R. B. Rood, and L. Pfister, 1995: Stratosphere–troposphere exchange. Rev. Geophys.,33, 403–439.
Houze, R. A., Jr., 1993: Cloud Dynamics. Academic Press, 573 pp.
Karoly, D. J., G. L. Roff, and M. J. Reeder, 1996: Gravity wave activity associated with tropical convection detected in TOGA COARE sounding data. Geophys. Res. Lett.,23, 261–264.
Lafore, J.-P., and M. Moncrieff, 1989: A numerical investigation of the organization and interaction of the convective and stratiform regions of tropical squall lines. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 521–544.
Lindzen, R. S., 1971: Equatorial planetary waves in shear: Part I. J. Atmos. Sci.,28, 609–622.
———, and J. R. Holton, 1968: A theory of the quasi-biennial oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci.,25, 1095–1107.
———, and C.-Y. Tsay, 1975: Wave structure of the tropical stratosphere over the Marshall Islands area during 1 April–1 July 1958. J. Atmos. Sci.,32, 2008–2021.
Maruyama, T., 1969: Long-term behaviour of Kelvin waves and mixed Rossby-gravity waves. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,47, 245–254.
Pfister, L., K. R. Chan, T. P. Bui, S. Bowen, M. Legg, B. Gary, K. Kelly, M. Proffitt, and W. Starr, 1993: Gravity waves generated by a tropical cyclone during the STEP tropical field program: A case study. J. Geophys. Res.,98, 8611–8638.
Plumb, R. A., 1977: The interaction of two internal waves with the mean flow: Implications for the theory of the quasi-biennial oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci.,34, 1847–1858.
———, and R. C. Bell, 1982: A model of the quasi-biennial oscillation on an equatorial beta-plane. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,108, 335–352.
Redelsperger, J.-L., and J.-P. Lafore, 1988: A three-dimensional simulation of a tropical squall line: Convective organization and thermodynamic vertical transport. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 1334–1356.
Sato, K., F. Hasegawa, and I. Hirota, 1994: Short-period disturbances in the equatorial lower stratosphere. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,72, 859–872.
Takahashi, M., and B. A. Boville, 1992: A three-dimensional simulation of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci.,49, 1020–1035.
Tsuda, T., Y. Murayama, H. Wiryosumarto, S. W. B. Harijono, and S. Kato, 1994: Radiosonde observations of equatorial atmosphere dynamics over Indonesia, 2, characteristics of gravity waves. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 10 507–10 516.
Wallace, J. M., and V. E. Kousky, 1968: Observational evidence of Kelvin waves in the tropical stratosphere. J. Atmos. Sci.,25, 900–907.
Zhang, C., 1993: On the annual cycle in highest, coldest clouds in the Tropics. J. Climate,6, 1987–1990.