PILPS is funded by grants from the Australian Research Council and through NOAA to The University of Arizona. We also acknowledge support from National Greenhouse Advisory Committee of the Department of Environment, Sports and Territories, Australia. The PILPS team acknowledges the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) for providing the Cabauw data, which are the result of a long-term boundary layer monitoring program in the Netherlands, and the active participation of all “PILP-ers.”
Abramopoulos, F., C. Rosenzweig, and B. Choudhury, 1988: Improved ground hydrology calculations for global climate models (GCMs): Soil water movement and evapotranspiration. J. Climate,1, 921–941.
Beljaars, A., and P. Viterbo, 1994: The sensitivity of winter evaporation to the formulation of aerodynamic resistance in the ECMWF model. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,71, 135–149.
——, and F. Bosveld, 1997: Cabauw data for the validation of land surface parameterization schemes. J. Climate,10, 1172–1193.
Cess, R., and G. Potter, 1988: A methodology for understanding and intercomparing atmospheric climate feedback processes in general circulation models. J. Geophys. Res.,93, 8305–8314.
——, and Coauthors, 1990: Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models. J. Geophys. Res.,95, 16 601–16 615.
Chen, F., K. Mitchell, J. Schaake, Y. Xue, H.-L. Pan, V. Koren, Q.-Y. Duan, M. Ek, and A. Betts, 1996: Modeling of land surface evaporation by four schemes and comparison with FIFE observations. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 7251–7268.
Chen, T.-H., and Coauthors, 1997: Cabauw experimental results from the Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS). J. Climate,10, 1194–1215.
Cogley, J., A. Pitman, and A. Henderson-Sellers, 1990: A land surface for large-scale climate models. Trent University Tech. Note 90-1, 120 pp. [Available from Department of Geography, Trent University, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8, Canada.].
Dai, Y.-J., and Q.-C. Zeng, 1996: A land surface model (IAP94) for climate studies, Part I: Formulation and validation in off-line experiments. IAP Annual Report, 180 pp. [Available from LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, People’s Republic of China.].
Dickinson, R., 1984: Modeling evapotranspiration for three-dimensional global climate models. Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity, Geophys. Monogr., No. 29, Amer. Geophys. Union, 58–72.
——, A. Henderson-Sellers, P. Kennedy, and M. Wilson, 1986: Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) for the NCAR community climate model. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-275+STR, 69 pp. [Available from National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80303-3000.].
——, ——, and ——, 1993: Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) version 1e as coupled to the NCAR community climate model. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-387+STR, 72 pp. [Available from National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80303-3000.].
Ducoudre, N., K. Laval, and A. Perrier, 1993: SECHIBA, a new set of parameterizations of the hydrologic exchanges at the land–atmosphere interface within the LMD atmospheric general circulation model. J. Climate,6, 248–273.
Dümenil, L., and E. Todini, 1992: A rainfall-runoff scheme for use in the Hamburg climate model. Advances in Theoretical Hydrology, J. P. O’Kane, Ed., Elsevier Science Publishers, 129–157.
Gedney, N., 1995: Development of a land surface scheme and its application to the Sahel. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Reading, 200 pp. [Available from Dept. of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6BB, United Kingdom.].
Gregory, D., and R. Smith, 1994: Canopy surface and soil hydrology. Unified Model Documentation Paper 25, 59 pp. [Available from U.K. Meteorological Office, Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2SZ, United Kingdom.].
Gusev, Y., and O. Nasonova, 1996: One-dimensional land-surface parameterization scheme for coupling with atmospheric models. Proc. Int. Conference: Meteorological Processes in the Boundary Layer of the Atmosphere, Stara Lesna, Slovak Republic, Slovak Meteor. Soc., 110–115.
Hansen, J., D. Johnson, A. Lacis, S. Lebedeff, P. Lee, D. Rind, and G. Russell, 1981: Climate impact of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Science,213, 957–966.
Henderson-Sellers, A., A. Pitman, P. Love, P. Irannejad, and T. Chen, 1995: The Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS): Phases 2 and 3. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,76, 489–503.
Jarvis, P., 1976: The interpretation of the variations in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance found in canopies in the field. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London,B273, 593–610.
Kim, J., and M. Ek, 1995: A simulation of the surface energy budget and soil water content over the HAPEX-MOBILHY forest site. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 20 845–20 854.
Kondo, J., N. Saigusa, and T. Sato, 1990: A parameterization of evaporation from bare soil surface. J. Appl. Meteor.,29, 385–389.
Koster, R., and M. Suarez, 1992: Modeling the land surface boundary in climate models as a composite of independent vegetation stands. J. Geophys. Res.,97, 2697–2715.
Kowalczyk, E., J. Garratt, and P. Krummell, 1991: A soil-canopy scheme for use in a numerical model of the atmosphere—1D stand-alone model. CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research Technical Paper No. 23, 56 pp. [Available from CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Victoria 3195, Australia.].
Liang, X., D. Lettenmaier, E. Wood, and S. Burges, 1994: A simple hydrologically based model of land surface water and energy fluxes for general circulation models. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 14 415–14 428.
——, E. Wood, and D. Lettenmaier, 1996: Surface soil moisture parameterization of the VIC-2L model: evaluation and modifications. Global Planet. Change,13, 195–206.
Mahfouf, J., and J. Noilhan, 1991: Comparative study of various formulations of evaporation from bare soil using in situ data. J. Appl. Meteor.,30, 1354–1365.
Mahrt, L., and M. Ek, 1984: Comparative study of various formulations of evaporation from bare soil using in situ data. J. Appl. Meteor.,23, 222–234.
——, and H.-L. Pan, 1984: A two-layer model of soil hydrology. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,29, 1–20.
Manabe, S., 1969: Climate and the ocean circulation. Part I: The atmospheric circulation and the hydrology of the earth’s surface. Mon. Wea. Rev.,97, 739–774.
Mengelkamp, H.-T., and K. Warrach, 1997: SEWAB—A parameterization of the surface energy and water balance for atmospheric and hydrological models. External Report, GKSS-Forchungszentrum, 42 pp. [Available from GKSS, D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany.].
Noilhan, J., and S. Planton, 1989: A simple parameterization of land surface processes for meteorological models. Mon. Wea. Rev.,117, 536–549.
Pan, H.-L., and L. Mahrt, 1987: Interaction between soil hydrology and boundary layer development. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,38, 185–202.
Pitman, A., and Coauthors, 1993: Results from off-line control simulation (Phase1a). GEWEX Tech. Note, IGPO Publication Series No. 7, 47 pp. [Available from Climatic Impacts Centre, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia.].
Qu, W.-Q., A. Henderson-Sellers, A. Pitman, and T.-H. Chen, 1996:Cabauw sensitivity experimental results from the Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes. GEWEX Tech. Note, IGPO Publication Series No. 24, 50 pp. [Available from Climatic Impacts Centre, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia.].
Robock, A., K. Vinnikov, C. Schlosser, N. Speranskaya, and Y. Xue, 1995: Use of midlatitude soil moisture and meteorological observations to validate soil moisture simulations with biosphere and bucket models. J. Climate,8, 15–35.
Schaake, J., V. Koren, Q.-Y. Duan, K. Mitchell, and F. Chen, 1996: Simple water balance model for estimating runoff at different spatial and temporal scales. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 7461–7475.
Schlesinger, M., and J. Mitchell, 1987: Model projections of the equilibrium climatic response to increased CO2. Rev. Geophys.,89, 760–798.
Shao, Y., and A. Henderson-Sellers, 1996: Modeling soil moisture: A project for intercomparison of land-surface parameterization schemes phase 2(b). J. Geophys. Res.,101, 7227–7250.
———, and Coauthors, 1994: Soil moisture simulation: A report of the RICE and PILPS workshop. GEWEX Tech. Note, IGPO Publication Series No. 14, 179 pp. [Available from Climatic Impacts Centre, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia.].
Shmakin, A., A. Mikhailov, and S. Bulanov, 1993: Parameterization scheme of the land hydrology considering the orography at different spatial scales. Exchange Processes at the Land Surface for a Range of Space and Time Scales, H.-J. Bolle, R. A. Feddes, and J. D. Kalma, Eds., IAHS Press, 569–575.
Thom, A. S., 1975: Momentum, mass and heat exchange. Vegetation and the Atmosphere, Vol. 1, J. L. Monteith, Ed., Academic Press, 57–109.
Verseghy, D., 1991: CLASS—A Canadian land surface scheme for GCMs, Part I: Soil model. Int. J. Climatol.,11, 111–133.
——, N. McFarlane, and M. Lazare, 1993: CLASS—A Canadian land surface scheme for GCMs, Part II: Vegetation model and coupled runs. Int. J. Climatol.,13, 347–370.
Warrilow, D., A. Sangster, and A. Slingo, 1986: Modeling of land surface processes and their influence on European climate. Dynamic Climatology Tech. Note No. 38, 94 pp. [Available from U.K. Meteorological Office, Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2SZ, United Kingdom.].
Wetherald, R., and S. Manabe, 1988: Cloud feedback processes in a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 1397–1415.
Wetzel, P., and A. Boone, 1995: A parameterization for land–atmosphere–cloud exchange (PLACE): Documentation and testing of a detailed process model of the partly cloudy boundary layer over heterogeneous land. J. Climate,8, 1810–1837.
Xue, Y., P. Sellers, J. Kinter, and J. Shukla, 1991: A simplified biosphere model for climate studies. J. Climate,4, 345–364.