We would like to thank Dr. Robert Nissen for his comments on the manuscript. Support from Dr. Richard Leaitch is appreciated.
DeMott, P. J., M. P. Meyers, and W. R. Cotton, 1994: Parameterization and impact of ice initiation processes relevant to numerical model simulations of cirrus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 77–90.
Dowling, D. R., and L. F. Radke, 1990: A summary of the physical properties of cirrus clouds. J. Appl. Meteor.,29, 970–978.
Gultepe, I., and D. O’C. Starr, 1995: Dynamical structure and turbulence in cirrus clouds: Aircraft observations during FIRE. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 4159–4182.
Hallett, J., 1976: Measurement of size, concentration and structure of atmospheric particulates by the airborne continuous particle replicator. Rep. AFGL–TR-76–0149, 92 pp. [Available from Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada System, Reno, NV 89507.].
Heymsfield, A. J., and R. M. Sabin, 1989: Cirrus crystal nucleation by homogeneous freezing of solution droplets. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 2252–2264.
——, and L. M. Miloshevich, 1993: Homogeneous ice nucleation and supercooled liquid water in orographic wave clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,50, 2335–2353.
——, and ——, 1995: Relative humidity and temperature influences on cirrus formation and evolution: Observations from wave clouds and FIRE II. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 4302–4326.
Jensen, E. J., O. B. Toon, D. L. Westphal, S. Kinne, and A. J. Heymsfield, 1994: Microphysical modeling of cirrus 1: Comparison with 1986 FIRE IFO measurements. J. Geophys. Res.,99(D5), 10421–10442.
Kinne, S., T. P. Ackerman, A. J. Heymsfield, F. P. J. Valero, K. Sassen, and J. D. Spinhirne, 1992: Cirrus microphysics and radiative transfer: Cloud field study on 28 October 1986. Mon. Wea. Rev.,120, 661–684.
Lin, H., K. J. Noone, J. Ström, and A. J. Heymsfield, 1998: Small ice crystals in cirrus clouds: A model study and comparison with in situ observation. J. Atmos. Sci.,55, 1928–1939.
Noone, K. B., K. J. Noone, J. Heintzenberg, J. Ström, and J. A. Ogren, 1993: In situ observations of cirrus cloud microphysical properties using the counterflow virtual impactor. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.,10, 294–303.
Sassen, K., and G. C. Dodd, 1989: Haze particles nucleation simulations in cirrus clouds, and applications for numerical modeling and lidar studies. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 3005–3014.
Ström, J., and J. Heintzenberg, 1994: Water vapor, condensed water, and crystal concentration in orographically influenced cirrus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 2368–2383.
——, ——, K. J. Noone, K. B. Noone, J. A. Ogren, F. Albers, and M. Quante 1994: Small crystal in cirriform clouds: A case study of residue size distribution, cloud water content and related cloud properties. Atmos. Res.,32, 125–141.
——, B. Strauss, F. Shröder, T. Anderson, J. Heintzenberg, and P. Wendling, 1997: In situ observations of the microphysical properties of young cirrus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,54, 2542–2553.
Zender, C. S., and J. T. Kiehl, 1994: Radiative sensitivities of tropical anvils to small ice crystals. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 25869–25880.