The author would like to thank R. Lindzen, R. Rosen, and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Institute of Global Environmental Change (NIGEC) through the NIGEC Northeast Regional Center at Harvard University (Grant 901214-HAR, Project C), and DOE CHAMMP Grant DE-FG02-93ER61673. Financial support does not constitute an endorsement by DOE of the views expressed in this article.
Bjerknes, J., 1966: A possible response of the atmospheric Hadley circulation to equatorial anomalies of ocean temperature. Tellus,18, 820–829.
——, 1969: Atmospheric teleconnections form the equatorial Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev.,97, 163–172.
Black, R. X., D. A. Salstein, and R. D. Rosen, 1996: Interannual modes of variability in atmospheric angular momentum. J. Climate,9, 2834–2849.
Chang, E. K. M., 1995: The influence of Hadley circulation intensity changes on extratropical climate in an idealized model. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 2006–2024.
——, 1996: Mean meridional circulation driven by eddy forcings of different timescales. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 113–125.
Chen, T.-C., J. J. Tribbia, and M.-C. Yen, 1996: Interannual variation of global atmospheric angular momentum. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 2852–2857.
Dickey, J. O., S. L. Marcus, and R. Hide, 1992: Global propagation of interannual fluctuations in atmospheric angular momentum. Nature,357, 484–488.
Edmon, H. J., B. J. Hoskins, and M. E. McIntyre, 1980: Eliassen–Palm cross sections for the troposphere. J. Atmos. Sci.,37, 2600–2626.
Green, J. S. A., 1970: Transfer properties of the large-scale eddies and the general circulation of the atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,96, 157–185.
Held, I. M., 1978: The vertical scale of an unstable baroclinic wave and its importance for eddy heat flux parameterizations. J. Atmos. Sci.,35, 572–576.
——, and A. Y. Hou, 1980: Nonlinear axially symmetric circulations in a nearly inviscid atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci.,37, 515–533.
——, and M. J. Suarez, 1994: A proposal for the intercomparison of the dynamical cores of atmospheric general circulation models. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,75, 1825–1830.
Hou, A. Y., and R. S. Lindzen, 1992: The influence of concentrated heating on the Hadley circulation. J. Atmos. Sci.,49, 1233–1241.
Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,77, 437–471.
Mo, K. C., J. O. Dickey, and S. L. Marcus, 1997: Interannual fluctuations in atmospheric angular momentum simulated by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction medium-range forecast model. J. Geophys. Res.,102, 6703–6713.
Oort, A. H., and J. J. Yienger, 1996: Observed long-term variability in the Hadley circulation and its connection to ENSO. J. Climate,9, 2751–2761.
Randel, W. J., and I. M. Held, 1991: Phase speed spectra of transient eddy fluxes and critical layer absorption. J. Atmos. Sci.,48, 688–697.
Rosen, R. D., 1993: The axial momentum balance of earth and its fluid envelope. Surv. Geophys.,14, 1–29.
Ross, B. B., and I. Orlanski, 1982: The evolution of an observed cold front. Part I: Numerical simulation. J. Atmos. Sci.,39, 296–327.
Saravanan, R., 1993: Equatorial superrotation and maintenance of the general circulation in two-level models. J. Atmos. Sci.,50, 1211–1227.
Stone, P. H., 1972: A simplified radiative-dynamical model for the static stability of rotating atmospheres. J. Atmos. Sci.,29, 405–418.
——, and M. S. Yao, 1990: Development of a two-dimensional zonally averaged statistical-dynamical model. Part III: The parameterization of the eddy fluxes of heat and moisture. J. Climate,3, 726–740.