Much of the work reported here was completed while WJR was on sabbatical at the Cooperative Research Center for Southern Hemisphere Meteorology at Monash University, Australia. We thank Tim Hall and Darryn Waugh for many useful discussions throughout the course of this work, particularly regarding tropical transport. We thank K.-K. Tung for providing the radiative heating code, and Barbara Naujokat for updated QBO winds. Dan Packman and Charles Cavanaugh managed the UARS data archive atNCAR. We thank Rolando Garcia, Boris Khattatov, and Mark Schoeberl for discussions and comments on the manuscript and Lesley Gray and Phil Mote for constructive and helpful reviews. Marilena Stone expertly prepared the manuscript. This work was partially supported under NASA Grants W-18181 and W-16215. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.
Andrews, D. G., J. R. Holton, and C. B. Leovy, 1987: Middle Atmosphere Dynamics. Academic Press, 489, pp.
Bacmeister, J. T., M. R. Schoeberl, M. E. Summers, J. R. Rosenfield, and X. Zhu, 1995: Descent of long-lived trace gasses into the winter polar vortex. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 11669–11684.
Baldwin, M. P., and T. J. Dunkerton, 1991: Quasi-biennial oscillation above 10 mb. Geophys. Res. Lett.,18, 1205–1208.
Bithell, M., L. J. Gray, J. E. Harries, J. M. Russell, and A. F. Tuck, 1994: On the synoptic interpretation of HALOE measurements using PV analysis. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 2942–2956.
Bowman, K. P., 1989: Global patterns of the quasi-biennial oscillation in total ozone. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 3328–3343.
——, 1993: Large-scale isentropic mixing properties of the Antarctic polar vortex from analyzed winds. J. Geophys. Res.,98, 23013–23027.
Brewer, A. W., 1949: Evidence for a world circulation provided by measurements of helium and water vapor distribution in the stratosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,75, 351–363.
Buchart, N., and E. E. Remsberg, 1986: The area of the stratospheric polar vortex as a diagnostic for tracer transport on isentropic surfaces. J. Atmos. Sci.,43, 1379–1405.
Chen, P., J. R. Holton, A. O’Neill, and R. Swinbank, 1994: Quasi- horizontal transport and mixing in the Antarctic stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 16851–16855.
Chipperfield, M. P., and L. J. Gray, 1992: Two dimensional model studies of the interannual variability of trace gasses in the middle atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res.,97, 5963–5980.
Choi, W.-K., and J. R. Holton, 1991: Transport of N2O in the stratosphere related to the equatorial semiannual oscillation. J. Geophys. Res.,96, 22543–22557.
Dessler, A. E., E. M. Weinstock, E. J. Hintsa, J. G. Anderson, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, J. W. Elkins, and G. S. Dutton, 1994: An examination of the total hydrogen budget of the lower stratosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett.,21, 2563–2566.
Dunkerton, T. J., and D. P. Delisi, 1988: Seasonal variation of the semiannual oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 2772–2787.
——, and M. P. Baldwin, 1991: Quasi-biennial modulation of planetary wave fluxes in the Northern Hemisphere winter. J. Atmos. Sci.,48, 1043–1061.
——, and D. O’Sullivan, 1996: Mixing zone in the tropical stratosphere above 10 mb. Geophys. Res. Lett.,23, 2497–2500.
Eluszkiewicz, J., and Coauthors, 1996: Residual circulation in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere as diagnosed from Microwave Limb Sounder data. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 217–240.
Fisher, M., and A. O’Neill, 1993: Rapid descent of mesospheric air into the stratospheric polar vortex. Geophys. Res. Lett.,20, 1267–1270.
Garcia, R. R., and S. Solomon, 1983: A numerical model of the zonally averaged dynamical and chemical structure of the middle atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res.,88, 1379–1400.
——, and ——, 1994: A new numerical model of the middle atmosphere 2. Ozone and related species. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 12937–12951.
Gille, J. C., L. V. Lyjak, and A. K. Smith, 1987: The global residual mean circulation in the middle atmosphere for the northern winter period. J. Atmos. Sci.,44, 1437–1452.
Grant, W. B., and Coauthors, 1994: Aerosol-associated changes intropical stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 8197–8211.
——, E. V. Browell, C. S. Long, L. L. Stowe, R. G. Grainger, and A. Lambert, 1996: Use of volcanic aerosols to study the tropical stratospheric reservoir. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 3973–3988.
Gray, L. J., and J. A. Pyle, 1986: The semi-annual oscillation and equatorial tracer distributions. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,112, 387–407.
——, and ——, 1987: Two dimensional model studies of equatorial dynamics and tracer distributions. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,113, 635–651.
——, and T. J. Dunkerton, 1990: The role of the seasonal cycle in the quasi-biennial oscillation of ozone. J. Atmos. Sci.,47, 2429–2451.
Hamilton, K., and J. D. Mahlman, 1988: General circulation model simulation of the semiannual oscillation of the tropical middle atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 3212–3235.
Harries, J. E., S. Ruth, and J. M. Russell III, 1996a: On the distribution of mesospheric molecular hydrogen inferred from HALOE measurements of H2O and CH4. Geophys. Res. Lett.,23, 297–300.
——, and Coauthors, 1996b: Validation of measurements of water vapor from the Halogen Occultation Experiment. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 10205–10216.
Hitchman, M. H., M. McKay, and C. R. Trepte, 1994: A climatology of stratospheric aerosol. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 20689–20700.
Holton, J. R., and W.-K. Choi, 1988: Transport circulation deduced from SAMS trace species data. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 1929–1939.
Jones, R. L., and J. A. Pyle, 1984: Observations of CH4 and N2O by the NIMBUS 7 SAMS: A comparison with in-situ data and two- dimensional numerical model calculations. J. Geophys. Res.,89, 5263–5279.
——, ——, J. E. Harries, A. M. Zavody, J. M. Russell III, and J. C. Gille, 1986: The water vapor budget of the stratosphere studied using LIMS and SAMS satellite data. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,112, 1127–1143.
Kelly, K. K., A. F. Tuck, L. E. Heidt, M. Loewenstein, J. F. Podolske, and S. E. Strahan, 1990: A comparison of ER-2 measurements of stratospheric water vapor between the 1987 Antarctic and 1989 Arctic airborn missions. Geophys. Res. Lett.,17, 465–468.
Kennaugh, R., S. Ruth, and L. J. Gray, 1997: Modeling quasi-biennial variability in the semi-annual double peak. J. Geophys. Res.,102, 16 169–16 188.
Kumer, J. B., J. L. Mergenthaler, and A. E. Roche, 1993: CLAES CH4, N2O and CCl2F2 (F12) global data. Geophys. Res. Lett.,20, 1239–1242.
Lahoz, W. A., and Coauthors, 1996a: Vortex dynamics and the evolution of water vapor in the stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,122, 423–450.
——, and Coauthors, 1996b: Validation of UARS microwave limb sounder 183 GHz H2O measurements. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 10129–10149.
Leovy, C. B., C.-R. Sun, M. H. Hitchman, E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell III, L. L. Gordley, J. C. Gille, and L. V. Lyjak, 1985: Transport of ozone in the middle stratosphere: Evidence for planetary wave breaking. J. Atmos. Sci.,42, 230–244.
LeTexier, H., S. Solomon, and R. R. Garcia, 1988: The role of molecular hydrogen and methane oxidation in the water vapor budget of the stratosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,114, 281–295.
Luo, M., R. J. Cicerone, and J. M. Russell III, 1995: Analysis of Halogen Occultation Experiment HF versus CH4 correlation plots: Chemistry and transport implications. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 13927–13437.
——, J. M. Russell III, and T. Y. W. Huang, 1997: HALOE observations of the quasi-biennial oscillation and the effects of Pinatubo aerosols in the tropical stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res.,102, 19 187–19 198.
Manney, G. L., R. W. Zurek, A.O’Neill, and R. Swinbank, 1994: On the motion of air through the stratospheric polar vortex. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 2973–2994.
——, L. Froidevaux, J. W. Waters, and R. W. Zurek, 1995: Evolution of microwave limb sounder ozone and the polar vortex during winter. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 2953–2972.
McCormick, M. P., E. W. Chiou, L. R. McMaster, W. P. Chu, J. C. Larsen, D. Rind, and S. Oltmans, 1993: Annual variations of water vapor in the stratosphere and upper troposphere observed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II. J. Geophys. Res.,98, 4867–4874.
McIntyre, M. E., and T. N. Palmer, 1983: Breaking planetary waves in the stratosphere. Nature,305, 593–600.
——, and ——, 1984: The “surf zone” in the stratosphere. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.,46, 825–849.
Mote, P. W., K. H. Rosenlof, J. R. Holton, R. S. Harwood, and J. W. Waters, 1995: Seasonal variations of water vapor in the tropical lower stratosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett.,22, 1093–1096.
——, and Coauthors, 1996: An atmospheric tape recorder: The imprint of tropical tropopause temperatures on stratospheric water vapor. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 3989–4006.
Newell, R. E., and S. Gould-Stewart, 1981: A stratospheric fountain? J. Atmos. Sci.,38, 2789–2796.
Norton, W. A., 1994: Breaking Rossby waves in a model stratosphere diagnosed by a vortex following coordinate system and a technique for advecting material contours. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 654–673.
Olaguer, E. P., H. Yang, and K. K. Tung, 1992: A re-examination of the radiative balance of the stratosphere. J. Atmos. Sci.,49, 1242–1263.
O’Sullivan, D., 1997: Cross equatorially radiating stratospheric Rossby waves. Geophys. Res. Lett.,24, 1483–1486.
——, and P. Chen, 1996: Modeling the quasi-biennial oscillation’s influence on isentropic tracer transport in the subtropics. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 6811–6821.
——, and T. J. Dunkerton, 1997: The influence of the quasi-biennial oscillation on global constituent distributions. J. Geophys. Res., in press.
Park, J. H., and Coauthors, 1996: Validation of HALOE CH4 measurements from UARS. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 10183–10204.
Pierce, R. B., W. Grose, J. R. Russell III, A. F. Tuck, R. Swinbank, and A. O’Neill, 1994: Spring dehydration in the Antarctic stratosphere vortex observed by HALOE. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 2931–2941.
Plumb, R. A., and R. C. Bell, 1982: A model of the quasi-biennial oscillation on an equatorial beta-plane. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,108, 335–352.
Polvani, L. M., D. W. Waugh, and R. A. Plumb, 1995: On the subtropical edge of the stratospheric surf zone. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 1288–1309.
Prather, M., and E. Remsberg, Eds., 1992: The atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft. NASA Ref. Publ. 1292, 268 pp.
Randel, W. J., and F. Wu, 1996: Isolation of the ozone QBO in SAGE II data by singular value decomposition. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 2546–2559.
——, B. A. Boville, J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, S. T. Massie, J. B. Kumer, J. L. Mergenthaler, and A. E. Roche, 1994: Simulation of stratospheric N2O in the NCAR CCM2: Comparison with CLAES data and global budget analysis. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 2834–2845.
Remsberg, E. E., J. M. Russell III, L. L. Gordley, J. C. Gille, and P. L. Bailey, 1984: Implications of stratospheric water vapor distributions as determined from the Nimbus 7 LIMS Experiment. J. Atmos. Sci.,41, 2934–2945.
——, P. P. Bhatt, and J. M. Russell III, 1996: Estimates of the water vapor budget of the stratosphere from UARS HALOE data. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 6749–6766.
Roche, A. E., and Coauthors, 1996: Validation of CH4 and N2O measurements by the cryogenic limb array etalon spectrometer instrumention on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 9679–9710.
Rosenfield, J., P. A. Newman, and M. R. Schoeberl, 1994: Computations of diabatic descent in the stratospheric polar vortex. J. Geophys. Res.,99, 16677–16689.
Rosenlof, K. H., 1995: Seasonal cycle of the residual mean meridional circulation in the stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 5173–5191.
——, A. F. Tuck, K. K. Kelly, J. M. Russell III, and M. P. McCormick, 1997: Hemispheric asymmetries in water vapor and inferences about transport in the lower stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res.,102, 13 213–13 234.
Russell J. M., III, A. F. Tuck, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, J. E. Harries, R. J. Cicerone, and P. J. Crutzen, 1993a: HALOE Antarctic observations in the spring of 1991. Geophys. Res. Lett.,20, 719–722.
——, and Coauthors, 1993b: The Halogen Occultation Experiment. J. Geophys. Res.,98, 10777–10797.
Ruth, S., R. Kennaugh, and L. J. Gray, 1997: Seasonal, semiannual and interannual variability seen in measurements of methane made by the UARS Halogen Occultation Experiment. J. Geophys. Res.,102, 16 189–16 200.
Sassi, F., R. R. Garcia, and B. A. Boville, 1993: The stratopause semiannual oscillation in the NCAR community climate model. J. Atmos. Sci.,50, 3608–3624.
Schoeberl, M. R., and Coauthors, 1989: Reconstruction of the constituent distribution and trends in the Antarctic polar vortex from ER-2 flight observations. J. Geophys. Res.,94, 16815–16846.
——, L. R. Lait, P. A. Newman, and J. E. Rosenfield, 1992: The structure of the polar vortex. J. Geophys. Res.,97, 7859–7882.
——, M. Luo, and J. E. Rosenfield, 1995: An analysis of the Antarctic Halogen Occultation Experiment trace gas observations. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 5159–5172.
——, A. E. Roche, J. M. Russell III, D. Ortland, P. B. Hays, and J. W. Waters, 1997: An estimation of the dynamical isolation of the tropical lower stratosphere using UARS wind and trace gas observations of the quasi-biennial oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett.,24, 53–56.
Solomon, S., J. T. Kiehl, R. R. Garcia, and W. Grose, 1986: Tracer transport by the diabatic circulation deduced from satellite observations. J. Atmos. Sci.,43, 1603–1617.
Stanford, J. L., J. R. Ziemke, and S. Y. Gao, 1993: Stratospheric circulation features deduced from SAMS constituent data. J. Atmos. Sci.,50, 226–246.
Strahan, S. E., J. E. Nielsen, and M. C. Cerniglia, 1996: Long-lived tracer transport in the Antarctic stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 26615–26629.
Sutton, R., 1994: Lagrangian flow in the middle atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,120, 1299–1321.
Swinbank, R., and A. O’Neill, 1994: A stratosphere–troposphere data assimilation system. Mon. Wea. Rev.,122, 686–702.
Trepte, C. R., and M. H. Hitchman, 1992: Tropical stratospheric circulation deduced from satellite aerosol data. Nature,355, 626–628.
——, R. E. Veiga, and M. P. McCormick, 1993: The poleward dispersal of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosol. J. Geophys. Res.,98, 18562–18573.
Tuck, A. F., J. M. Russell III, and J. E. Harries, 1993: Stratospheric dryness: Antiphased dessication over Micronesia and Antarctica. Geophys. Res. Lett.,20, 1227–1230.
Volk, C. M., and Coauthors, 1996: Quantifying transport between the tropical and midlatitude lower stratosphere. Science,272, 1763–1768.
Wallace, J. M., R. L. Panetta, and J. Estberg, 1993: Representation of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation in EOF phase space. J. Atmos. Sci.,50, 1751–1762.
Waugh, D. W., 1996: Seasonal variation of isentropic transport out of the tropical stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res.,101, 4007–4023.
Zawodny, J. M., and M. P. McCormick, 1991: Stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II measurements of the quasi-biennial oscillation in ozone and nitrogen dioxide. J. Geophys. Res.,96, 9371–9377.