Thanks to the MLS and CLAES teams for their efforts in making the data available, the UKMO (R. Swinbank, A. O’Neill) for meteorological data, Drs. L. S. Elson and R. P. Thurstans for asynoptic mapping of MLS and CLAES data, Dr. M. L. Santee for CLAES data examination and helpful discussions, and Drs. D. R. Allen, W. A. Lahoz, and three anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on the original manuscript. Part of this work was carried out while Y. J. Orsolini was a visiting scientist at Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques. Work at the University of Edinburgh (H. C. Pumphrey) was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). Work at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology and at the Lockheed Martin Palo Alto Laboratory was done under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
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