We are grateful to Grant Branstator, Isaac Held, and Darryn Waugh for several useful discussions. The computations presented here were performed at the Pittsburgh SuperComputing Center. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under grants to MIT and Columbia University.
Andrews, D. G., 1984: On the stability of forced nonzonal flows. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,110, 657–662.
Baines, P. G., 1976: The stability of planetary waves on a sphere. J. Fluid Mech.,73, 193–213.
Borges, M. D., and P. D. Sardeshmukh, 1995: Barotropic Rossby wave dynamics of zonally varying upper-level flows during northern winter. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 3779–3796.
Branstator, G. W., and I. M. Held, 1995: Westward propagating normal modes in the presence of stationary background waves. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 247–262.
Brunet, G., and P. H. Haynes, 1996: Low-latitude reflection of Rossby wave trains. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 482–496.
Frederiksen, J. S., and P. J. Webster, 1988: Alternative theories of atmospheric teleconnections and low-frequency fluctuations. Rev. Geophys.,26, 459–494.
Gill, A. E., 1974: The stability of planetary waves. Geophys. Fluid Dyn.,6, 29–47.
Grose, W. L., and B. J. Hoskins, 1979: On the influence of orography on large-scale atmospheric flow. J. Atmos. Sci.,36, 223–234.
Hack, J. J., and R. Jakob, 1992: Description of a shallow water model based on the spectral transform method. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-343+STR, 39 pp. [Available from NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307.].
Horel, J. D., 1984: Complex principal component analysis: Theory and examples. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,23, 1660–1673.
Huang, H. P., and W. A. Robinson, 1995: Barotropic model simulations of the North Pacific retrograde disturbances. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 1630–1641.
Sardeshmukh, P. D., M. Newman, and M. D. Borges, 1997: Free barotropic Rossby wave dynamics of the wintertime low-frequency flow. J. Atmos. Sci.,54, 5–23.
Simmons, A. J., J. M. Wallace, and G. W. Branstator, 1983: Barotropic wave propagation and instability, and atmospheric teleconnection patterns. J. Atmos. Sci.,40, 1363–1392.
Waugh, D. W., L. M. Polvani, and R. A. Plumb, 1994: Nonlinear, barotropic response to a localized topographic forcing: Formation of a “tropical surf zone” and its effect on interhemispheric propagation. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 1401–1416.
Webster, P. J., and J. R. Holton, 1982: Cross-equatorial response to middle-latitude forcing in a zonally varying basic state. J. Atmos. Sci.,39, 722–733.