I express my gratitude to Hans von Storch, Klaus Hasselmann, Peter Müller, Richard Rosen, Grant Branstator, and Reiner Schnur for many fruitful discussions. Thanks also to Marion Grunert and Doris Lewandowsky for preparing the diagrams. The present analysis was done in the framework of the project “Simulationen mit Klimamodelle über Hundert von Jahren:Analyse der interdekadischen Vairabilität und ihre Implikationen für die Signalerkenung von Climate Change,” funded by the German Ministry for Education and Research.
Boer, G. J., 1990: Earth–atmosphere exchange of angular momentum simulated in a general circulation model and implications for the length of day. J. Geophys. Res.,95, 5511–5531.
Branstator, G., 1990: Low-frequency patterns induced by stationary waves. J. Atmos. Sci.,47, 629–648.
James, I. N., and P. M. James, 1989: Ultra-low-frequency variability in a simple atmospheric circulation model. Nature,342, 53–55.
——, and ——, 1992: Spatial structure of ultra-low-frequency variability of the flow in a simple atmospheric circulation model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,118, 1211–1233.
Lau, N.-C., 1981: A diagnostic study of recurrent meteorological anomalies appearing in a 15-year simulation with a GFDL general circulation model. Mon. Wea. Rev.,109, 2287–2311.
Kang, I.-K., and K.-M. Lau, 1994: Principal modes of atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with global angular momentum fluctuations. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 1194–1205.
Peixoto, J.-P., and A. H. Oort, 1992: Physics of Climate. American Institute of Physics, 520 pp.
Robinson, W. A., 1991: The dynamics of the zonal index in a simple model of the atmosphere. Tellus,43A, 295–305.
——, 1993: The generation of ultralow-frequency variations in a simple global model. J. Atmos. Sci.,50, 137–143.
Rogers, J. C., and H. van Loon, 1982: Spatial variability of sea level pressure and 500-mb height anomalies over the Southern Hemisphere. Mon. Wea. Rev.,110, 1375–1392.
Rosen, R. D., 1993: The axial momentum balance of the earth and its fluid envelope. Surv. Geophys.,14, 1–29.
——, and D. A. Salstein, 1983: Variations in atmospheric angular momentum on global and regional scales and the length of day. J. Geophys. Res.,88, 5451–5470.
——, ——, and S. L. Marcus, 1994: Model intercomparison of low-frequency signals in atmospheric angular momentum. Proc. Sixth Conf. on Climate Variations, Nashville, TN, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 1–4.
Trenberth, K. E., and J. R. Christy, 1985: Global fluctuations in the distribution of atmospheric mass. J. Geophys. Res.,90 (D5), 8042–8052.
von Storch, J.-S., 1994: Interdecadal variability in a global coupled model. Tellus,46A, 419–432.
——, V. Kharin, U. Cubasch, G. C. Hegerl, D. Schriever, H. von Storch, and E. Zorita, 1997: A description of a 1260-year control integration with the coupled ECHAM1/LSG general circulation model. J. Climate,10, 1525–1543.
Wahr, J. M., and A. H. Oort, 1984: Friction- and mountain-torque estimates from global atmospheric data. J. Atmos. Sci.,41, 190–204.
Wallace, J. M., and D. G. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev.,109, 784–812.
Xu, J.-S., 1993: The joint modes of the coupled atmosphere–ocean system observed from 1967 to 1986. J. Climate,6, 816–838.
Yu, J.-Y., and D. L. Hartmann, 1993: Zonal flow vacillation and eddy forcing in a simple GCM of the atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci.,50, 3244–3259.
Zwiers, F. W., 1987: A potential predictability study conducted with an atmospheric general circulation model. Mon. Wea. Rev.,115, 2957–2974.