This study was supported by the Russian Fund for Basic Research (Grants 93-05-8258, 96-05-66350, 96-05-79143, 97-05-79064), the International Science Foundation (ISF) and the Joint Program of ISF and RF Government (Grants RJD000 and RJD300), and the Federal Program “Integration between Academy of Sciences and High School” (Grant 726). Irina Pipko and Svetlana Pugach did the main work of processing for data and technical preparation of the manuscript. We thank Alexander Gukov, Nikolay Pivovarov, Pavel Tishchenko, Sergei Zimov, Yura Voropaev, Evgeny Radaev, Sergei Daviodov, Sasha Skotnikov, and others who have participated directly in the Arctic research. Sergei Ryabchuk, Vadim Zlobin, Nikita Molochushkin, Alexander Matvienko, Boris Bombelo, and Anatoliy Devyatkin helped us strongly with work in the Tiksi area. We thank also the administration of AARI, especially Alexander Danilov and Sergei Pryamikov and the crews of R/Vs Professor Vize, Mikhail Somov, Alpha Helix, and Dunay for logistical support. Special thanks to John Christensen, who involved us in the Chukchi Sea Cruise on board the R/V Alpha Helix. We are grateful to Victor Ilyichov, Georgui Golitsyn, and Oleg Bordovsky, who helped us to save the Arctic research in the early 1990s. I thank three anonymous reviewers and the editorial board for useful recommendations and comments and editing of the manuscript. Special thanks for Patricia Golden, who helped with the English version.
Aagaard, K., and E. C. Carmack, 1989: The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the Arctic circulation. J. Geophys. Res.,94 (C10), 14 485–14 498.
Antonov, V. S., and V. Ya. Morozova, 1957: Total riverine runoff in the Arctic Seas (in Russian). AARI Proc.,208, 13–52.
Bartlett, K. B., P. M. Crill, R. L. Sass, R. C. Harriss, and N. B. Dise, 1992: Methane emissions from tundra environments in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. J. Geophys. Res.,97, 16 645–16 660.
Blake, D. R., and F. S. Rowland, 1988: Continuing worldwide increase in tropospheric methane, 1978–1987. Science,239, 1129–1131.
Bolin, B., and C. D. Keeling, 1963: Large-scale atmospheric mixing as deduced from the seasonal and meridional variation of carbon dioxide. J. Geophys. Res.,68, 3899–3920.
Bordovsky, O. K., and V. N. Ivanenkov, Eds., 1985: Hydrochemical Processes in the Ocean (in Russian). P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, 122 pp.
——, and P. N. Makkaveev, 1991: CO2 exchange and carbon budget in the Pacific Ocean. Trans. Russ. Acad. Sci.,320, 1470–1473.
Broecker, W. S., 1997: Thermohaline circulation, the Achilles heel of our climate system: Will manmade CO2 upset the current balance? Science,278, 1582–1588.
Chappellaz, J., J. M. Barnola, D. Raynaud, Y. S. Korotkevich, and C. Lorius, 1990: Ice-core record of atmospheric methane over the past 160,000 years. Nature,335, 127–131.
——, T. Blunier, D. Raynaud, J. M. Barnola, J. Schwander, and B. Stauffer, 1993: Synchronous changes in atmospheric CH4 and Greenland climate between 40 and 8 kyr BP. Nature,336, 443–445.
Chekhovskiy, A. L., and I. I. Shamanova, 1976: Talik formation under thermocarst lakes in the West Siberia (in Russian). Proc. PNIIS,49, 64–86.
Chen, C. T. A., 1985: Preliminary observations of oxygen and carbon dioxide of the wintertime Bering Sea Marginal ice zone. Contin. Shelf Res.,4, 465–483.
——, 1988: Summer-winter comparisons of oxygen, nutrients and carbonates in the polar seas. La Mer,26, 1–11.
——, 1993: Carbonate chemistry of the wintertime Bering Sea Marginal ice zone. Contin. Shelf Res.,13, 67–87.
Ciais, P., and Coauthors, 1995a: Partitioning of ocean and land uptake of CO2 as inferred by 13C measurements from the NOAA/CMDL Global Air Sampling Network. J. Geophys. Res.,100, 5051–5070.
——, P. P. Tans, M. Trolier, J. W. C. White, and R. J. Francey, 1995b:A large northern hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2. Science,269, 1098–1102.
Cicerone, R. J., and R. S. Oremland, 1988: Biogeochemical aspects of atmospheric methane. Global Biogeochem. Cycles,2, 299–327.
Coachman, L. K., K. Aagaard, and R. B. Tripp, 1975: The Bering Strait: The Regional Physical Oceanography. University of Washington Press, 199 pp.
Codispoti, L. A., and F. A. Richards, 1971: Oxygen supersaturation in the Chukchi Sea. Deep-Sea Res.,18, 341–351.
——, G. E. Friederick, R. L. Iverson, and D. W. Hood, 1982: Temporal changes in the inorganic carbon system of the south-eastern Bering Sea during spring 1980. Nature,296, 242–245.
Conway, T. Y., P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, D. R. Kitzis, K. A. Masarie, and N. Zhang, 1994: Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the NOAA/CMDL Global Air Sampling Network. J. Geophys. Res.,99 (D11),22 831–22 855.
Coyne, P. I., and J. J. Kelley, 1974: Carbon dioxide partial pressures in arctic surface waters. Limnol. Oceanogr.,19, 928–938.
Craig, H., and C. C. Chun, 1982: Methane: The record in polar ice cores. Geophys. Res. Lett.9, 1221–1224.
DOE, 1994: Handbook of Methods for the Analysis of the Various Parameters of the Carbon Dioxide System in Sea Water Version 2. DOE, 199 pp.
Erickson, D. J., III, 1989: Variations in the global air-sea transfer velocity field of CO2. Global Biogeochem. Cycles,3, 37–41.
Fartishev, A. I., 1993: Features of Coastal and Shelf Cryolytozone of the Laptevs Sea (in Russian). Nauka, 136 pp.
Fraser, P. J., M. A. K. Khalil, R. A. Rasmussen, and L. P. Steele, 1984: Tropospheric methane in the mid latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, J. Atmos. Chem.,1, 125–135.
Fung, I., 1993: Models of oceanic and terristrial sinks of antropogenic CO2: A review of the contemporary carbon cycle. Biogeochemistry of Global Change: Radiatively Active Trace Gases, R. S. Oremland, Ed., Chapman and Hall, 166–192.
——, J. John, J. Lerner, E. Matthews, M. Prather, L. P. Steele, and P. J. Fraser, 1991: Three-dimensional model synthesis of the global methane cycle. J. Geophys. Res.,96, 13 033–13 065.
Gorham, E., 1991: The role of subarctic and boreal peatlands in the global carbon cycle, and their probable responses to “greenhouse”/climatic warming. Ecol. Applications,1, 182–195.
Gosink, T. A., 1983: pCO2 in surface water and air: Norwegian and Barents Seas—Winter, 1983. Final data report, Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 16 pp. [Available from Institute of Marine Science, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7220.].
——, J. D. Pearson, and J. J. Kelley, 1976: Gas movement through sea ice. Nature,263, 41–42.
Harriss, R. C., G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. Wade, K. B. Bartlett, J. E. Collins, P. Steel, and P. C. Novelli, 1992: Carbon monoxide and methane in the North American Arctic and subarctic troposphere: July–August 1988: J. Geophys. Res.,97 (D15),16 589–16 599.
Hopkins, D. M., and J. G. Kidd, 1988: Thaw lake sediment and sedimentary environments. Permafrost, Proc. Fifth Conf., Trondheim, Norway, 790–795.
IGAC, 1994: International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, 32, Stockholm, 134 pp. [Available from IGBP Secretariat, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Box 50005, S-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden.].
Inoue, H., and Y. Sugimura, 1986: Distribution of pCO2 and δC13 in the air and surface sea water in the Southern Ocean, South Australia. Mem. Nat. Jpn. Polar Res.,40, 454–461.
IPCC, 1992: Climate Change 1992, the Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment. Cambridge University Press.
Jouzel, J., and Coauthors, 1993: Extending the Vostok ice-core record of paleoclimate to the penultimate glacial period. Nature,364, 407–412.
Keeling, C. D., 1968: Carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters: 4. Global distribution. J. Geophys. Res.,73, 4543–4553.
Kelley, J. J., 1970: Carbon dioxide in the surface waters of the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents and Kara Sea. Limnol. Oceanogr.,15, 80–87.
——, and T. A. Gosink, 1988: Carbon dioxide and other trace gases in tundra surface waters in Alaska. SCOPE/UNEP Sonderband, Heft 66, 117–127.
——, D. F. Weaver, and B. P. Smith, 1968: The variation of carbon dioxide under the snow in the Arctic. Ecology,49, 358–361.
Kling, G. W., G. W. Kipphut, and M. C. Miller, 1992: The flux of CO2 and CH4 from lakes and rivers in Arctic Alaska. Hydrobiol.,240, 23–36.
Kunitskiy, V. V., 1989: Cryolithology of the Low Lena River (in Russian). Permafrost Institute, 162 pp.
Lachenbruch, A. H., and B. V. Marshall, 1986: Changing climate: Geothermal evidence from permafrost in the Alaskan Arctic. Science,234, 689–696.
MacDonald, R. W., and D. J. Thomas, 1991: Chemical interactions and sediments of the Western Canadian Arctic Shelf. Contin. Shelf Res.,11, 843–863.
Makagon, Y. F., 1982: Perspectives for the development of gas hydrate deposits. Proceedings of the Fourth Canadian Permafrost Conference, H. M. French, Ed. National Research Council of Canada, 299–304.
Makkaveev, P. N., 1994: The dissolved inorganic carbon in the Kara Sea and in the mouths of the Ob and Yenisei Rivers. Oceanology,34, 668–672.
Martens, C. S., C. A. Kelley, J. P. Chanton, and W. J. Showers, 1992:Carbon and hydrogen isotopic characterization of methane from wetlands and lakes of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, western Alaska. J. Geophys. Res.,97, 16 689–16 701.
Matthews, E., and I. Fung, 1987: Methane emission from natural wetlands: global distribution, area, and environmental characteristics of sources. Global Biogeochem. Cycles,1, 61–86.
Mattson, M. D., and G. E. Likens, 1990: Air pressure and methane fluxes. Nature,347, 718–719.
McQuaid, J., and A. Mercer, 1991: Air pressure and methane fluxes. Nature,351, 528.
Meerbach, C., C. H. Culberson, J. E. Hawley, and R. M. Pytkowicz, 1973: Measurement of the apparent dissociation constants of carbonic acid in seawater at atmospheric pressure. Limnol. Oceanogr.,18, 897–907.
Millero, F. J., 1995: Thermodynamics of the carbon dioxide system in the oceans. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta,59, 661–677.
Nakazawa, T., and S. Morimoto, 1997: Variations of carbon and oxygen isotopes of atmospheric carbon dioxids and their implications for the global carbon cycle. Extended Abstracts, Int. Symp. on Atmospheric Chemistry and Future Global Environment, Nagoya, Japan, Science Council of Japan, National Space Development Agency, 32–34.
Nisbet, E. G., 1989: Some northern sources of atmospheric methane:Production, history and future implications. Can. J. Earth Sci.,26, 1603–1611.
Oechel, W. C., S. J. Hastings, G. Vourlitis, M. Jenkins, G. Riechers, and N. Grulke, 1993: Recent change of Arctic tundra ecosystems from a net carbon dioxide sink to a source. Nature,361, 520–523.
Park, P. K., L. I. Gordon, and S. Alvarez-Borego, 1974: The carbon dioxide system of the Bering Sea. Oceanography of the Bering Sea, D. W. Hood and E. J. Kelley, Eds., Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 107–147.
Post, W. M., W. R. Emmanuel, P. J. Zinke, and A. G. Stangenberger, 1982: Soil carbon pools and world life zones. Nature,298, 156–159.
Prinn, R. G., Ed., 1994: Global Atmospheric–Biospheric Chemistry. Plenum Press, 261 pp.
Quay, P. D., and Coauthors, 1991: Carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric CH4: Fossil and biomass burning source strengths. Global Biogeochem. Cycles,5, 25–47.
Rasmussen, R. A., and M. A. K. Khalil, 1984: Atmospheric methane in the recent and ancient atmospheres: Concentrations, trends and interhemispheric gradient. J. Geophys. Res.,89 (D7),11 599–11 605.
Reeburgh, W. S., and P. M. Crill, 1996: Global methane budget studies. Newsl. IGAC,6, 6–9.
——, N. T. Roulet, and B. H. Svensson, 1994: Terrestrial biosphere-atmosphere exchange in high-latitudes. Global Atmospheric- Biospheric Chemistry, R. G. Prinn, Ed., Plenum Press, 165–178.
Rogachev, K. A., P. Ya. Tishchenko, G. Yu. Pavlova, A. S. Bychkov, E. C. Carmack, C. S. Wong, and G. I. Yurasov, 1996: The influence of fresh-core rings on chemical concentrations (CO2, PO4, O2, alkalinity, pH) in the western subarctic Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res.,101 (C1), 999–1010.
Romanovskiy, N. N., A. V. Gavriliov, G. P. Pustovoit, A. L. Kholodov, H. Kassens, H.-W. Hubberten, and F. Nissen, 1997: Off-shore permafrost distribution of the Laptevs Sea shelf (in Russian). Cryosphere Earth, 1 (N3), 9–18.
Rotty, R., 1983: Distribution of and changes in industrial carbon dioxide production. J. Geophys. Res.,88, 1301–1308.
Rudd, J. W. M., and R. D. Hamilton, 1978: Methane cycling in a eutrophic shield lake and its effects on whole lake metabolism. Limnol. Oceanogr.,23, 337–348.
Rusanov, V. P., N. I. Yakovlev, and A. G. Buynevich, 1979: Hydrochemical Regime of the Arctic Ocean (in Russian). Hydrometeoizdat, 144 pp.
Semiletov, I. P., 1992: Determination of total inorganic carbon content in sea water by GC-technique (in Russian). Modern Methods of Hydrochemical Researches, O. K. Bordovsky and A. M. Chernyakova, Eds., P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 94–106.
——, 1993: Ancient ice air content of the Vostok ice core. Biogeochemistry of Trace Gases: Radiatively Active Trace Gases, R. S. Oremland, Ed., Chapman and Hall, 46–59.
——, and I. I. Pipko, 1991: Mesoscale space-time variations of CO2 in the ocean-atmosphere system: The Subarctic Frontal Zone in the Pacific Ocean. Oceanology,31, 84–91.
——, S. A. Zimov, S. P. Daviodov, Yu. V. Voropaev, and S. F. Prosyannikov, 1993: Arctic atmospheric CO2 bimodal distribution. Proc. Int. Workshop on Carbon Cycling in Boreal Forest and Sub-Arctic Ecosystems: Biospheric Responses and Feedbacks to Global Climate Change, Corvallis, OR, Oregon State University, 35–42.
——, ——, Yu. V. Voropaev, S. P. Daviodov, N. I. Barkov, A. M. Gusev, and V. Ya. Lipenkov, 1994: Atmospheric methane in past and present. Trans. Dokl. Russ. Acad. Sci.,339, 253–256.
——, I. I. Pipko, and A. Yu. Nikitin, 1995: Carbon dioxide in the surface waters of the Southern Ocean: Indian and Atlantic sectors. Trans. Dokl. Russ. Acad. Sci.,342, 393–397.
——, ——, N. Ya. Pivovarov, V. V. Popov, S. A. Zimov, Yu. V. Voropaev, and S. P. Daviodov, 1996a: Atmospheric carbon emission from North Asian Lakes: A factor of global significance. Atmos. Environ.,30, 1657–1671.
——, N. Ya. Pivovarov, I. I. Pipko, A. Yu. Gukov, T. I. Volkova, J. H. Sharp, Yu. S. Sherbakov, and K. P. Fedorov, 1996b: On dynamics of dissolved CH4 and CO2 in the mouth of the Lena River and Laptevs Sea. Trans. Dokl. Russ. Acad. Sci.,350, 406–409.
——, P. Ya. Tishchenko, J. P. Christensen, I. I. Pipko, N. Ya. Pivovarov, and S. P. Pugach, 1998: On the carbonate system in the Chukchi Sea. Trans. Dokl. Russ. Acad. Sci., in press.
Siegenthaler, U., 1983: Uptake of excess CO2 by an outcrop diffusion model of the ocean. J. Geophys. Res.,88 (C6), 3599–3608.
Skirrow, G., 1975: The dissolved gases—Carbon dioxide. Chemical Oceanography, J. R. Riley and G. Skirrow, Eds., Vol. 2, Academic Press, 1–192.
Smith, W. O., and E. Sakshaug, 1990: Polar phytoplankton. Polar Oceanography, Part B: Chemistry, Biology and Geology, W. O. Smith, Ed., Academic Press, 477–520.
Sommerfeld, R. A., A. R. Mosier, and R. C. Musselman, 1993: CO2, CH4 and N2O flux through a Wyoming snowpack and implications for global budgets. Nature,361, 140–142.
Sorokin, Y. I., and P. Y. Sorokin, 1996: Plankton and primary production in the Lena River estuary and in the south-eastern Laptevs Sea. Agric. Bio. Env. Sci.,45, VL798.
Steele, L. P., and Coauthors, 1987: The global distribution of methane in the troposphere. J. Atmos. Chem.,5, 125–171.
Tans, P. P., I. Y. Fung, and T. Takahashi, 1990: Observational constraints on the global atmospheric CO2 budget. Science,247, 1431–1438.
——, J. A. Berry, and R. F. Kelling, 1993: Oceanic 13C/12C observation: A new window on ocean CO2 uptake. Global Biogeochem. Cycles,7, 353–368.
Tomirdiaro, S. V., 1980: Lessovo-Ledovaya Formatsia Vostochnoi Sibiri v Pozdnem Pleistocene i Golocene. Nauka, 184 pp.
Treshnikov, A. F., and S. S. Salnikov, Eds., 1985: The Northern and Southern Oceans (in Russian). Nauka, 501 pp.
Tucker, C. J., I. Y. Fung, C. D. Keeling, and R. H. Gammon, 1986: Relationship between atmospheric CO2 variations and a satellite-derived vegetation index. Nature,319, 195–199.
UNESCO, 1987: Thermodynamics of the carbon dioxide system in seawater. UNESCO Tech. Papers in Marine Science, Vol. 51, 45 pp.
Vitenberg, A. G., and B. V. Ioffe, 1982: Gas Extraction in Chromatographic Analysis: Headspace Analysis and Related Techniques (in Russian). Khimiya Publishing, 279 pp.
Vowinckel, E., and S. Orvig, 1970: The climate of the North Polar Basin. Climate of the Polar Region, S. Orvig, Ed., World Survey of Climatology, Vol. 14, Elsevier, 129–252.
Weisenburg, D. A., and N. L. Guinasso Jr., 1979: Equilibrium solubilities of methane, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen in water and seawater. J. Chem. Eng. Data,24, 356–360.
Weiss, R. F., 1981: Determination of gas carbon dioxide and methane by duel catalyst flame ionisation chromatography and nitrous oxide by electron capture chromatography. J. Chromatogr. Sci.,19, 611–616.
——, and H. Craig, 1973: Precise shipboard determination of dissolved nitrogen, oxygen, argon and total inorganic carbon by gas chromatography. Deep-Sea Res.,20, 291–303.
——, R. A. Jahnke, and C. D. Keeling, 1982: Seasonal effects of temperature and salinity on the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater. Nature,300, 721–735.
Wong, C. S., Y.-H. Chan, J. S. Page, and R. D. Bellegay, 1984: Trends of atmospheric CO2 over Canadian WMO background station P, Sable Island, and Alert. J. Geophys. Res.,89, 9527–9539.
Worthy, D. E. J., N. B. A. Trivett, J. F. Hopper, and J. W. Bottenheim, 1994: Analyses of long-range transport events at Alert, Northwest Territories, during the Polar Sunrise Experiment. J Geophys. Res.,99 (D12), 25 329–25 344.
Zimov, S. A., I. P. Semiletov, S. P. Daviodov, Yu. V. Voropaev, S. F. Prosyannikov, C. S. Wong, and Y.-H. Chan, 1993: Wintertime CO2 emission from soils of northeastern Siberia. Arctic,46, 197–204.
——, S. P. Daviodov, Yu. V. Voropaev, S. F. Prosyannikov, I. P. Semiletov, M. C. Chapin, and F. S. Chapin, 1996: Siberian CO2 efflux in winter as a CO2 source and cause of seasonality in atmospheric CO2. Climate Change,33, 111–120.
——, Yu. V. Voropaev, I. P. Semiletov, S. P. Daviodov, S. F. Prosyannikov, F. S. Chapin, and M. C. Chapin, 1997a: Pleistocene—Aged methane emitted by north Siberian lakes: Evidence for past and present impact on the seasonal dynamics of atmospheric methane concentration. Proc. AGU Fall Meeting, San Franciso, CA, Amer. Geophys. Union.
——, and Coauthors, 1997b: North Siberian lakes: A methane source fueled by Pleistocene carbon. Science,277, 800–802.
Zvyagintsev, D. G., 1992: Microorganisms in permafrost (in Russian). Adv. Microbiol.,25, 3–27.