The author would like to express his special thanks to Dr. A. Numaguti of Hokkaido University for permitting me to use his aqua-planet GCM with his kind guidance. Thanks are extended to Prof. T. Asai and Prof. T. Nitta for their encouragement throughout this study. Discussions with Prof. M. Yamasaki, Dr. H. Nakamura, and Dr. S.-H. Xie were fruitful. Comments of anonymous reviewers were helpful in improving the original manuscript. We utilized NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data obtained from the NCAR data library compiled by Dr. H. Nakamura and Mr. A. Sinpo. This study was supported by the Grant-in-aid for Scientific Research by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture. Part of this study was done as a cooperative study with the University of Tokyo’s Climate System Research and National Space Development Agency of Japan. The NCAR Graphics developed at NCAR and the Grid Analysis and Display System developed at COLA, University of Maryland, were utilized to draw the figures in this paper.
Chen, T.-C., and J.-M. Chen, 1993: The intraseasonal oscillation of the lower-tropospheric circulation over the western Pacific during the 1979 northern summer. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,71, 205–220.
——, M.-C. Yen, and M. Murakami, 1988: The water vapor transport associated with the 30–50-day oscillation over the Asian monsoon regions during 1979 summer. Mon. Wea. Rev.,116, 1983–2002.
Figueroa, S. N., P. Satyamurty, and P. L. Silva Dias, 1995: Simulations of the summer circulation over the South American region with the Eta coordinate model. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 1573–1584.
Gandu, A. W., and J. E. Geisler, 1991: A primitive equations model study of the effect of topography on the summer circulation over tropical South America. J. Atmos. Sci.,48, 1822–1836.
Gill, A. E., 1980: Some simple solutions for heat-induced tropical circulation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,106, 447–462.
Hendon, H. H., 1986: The time–mean flow and variability in a nonlinear model of the atmosphere with tropical diabatic forcing. J. Atmos. Sci.,43, 72–88.
Huang, H.-J., and D. G. Vincent, 1983: Major changes in circulation features over the South Pacific during FGGE, 10–27 January 1979. Mon. Wea. Rev.,111, 1611–1618.
Hurrell, J. W., and D. G. Vincent, 1990: Relationship between tropical heating and subtropical westerly maxima in the Southern Hemisphere during SOP-1, FGGE. J. Climate,3, 751–768.
——, and ——, 1991: On the maintenance of short-term wind maxima in the Southern Hemisphere during SOP-1, FGGE. J. Climate,4, 1009–1022.
Jaeger, L., 1976: Monthly precipitation for the whole world (in German). Ber. Dtsch. Wetterdienstes,139, 1–38.
Janowiak, J. E., P. H. Arkin, P. Xie, M. L. Morrissey, and D. R. Legates, 1995: An examination of the east Pacific ITCZ rainfall distribution. J. Climate,8, 2810–2823.
Kalnay, E., K. C. Mo, and J. Paegle, 1986: Large-amplitude, short-scale stationary Rossby waves in the Southern Hemisphere: Observations and mechanistic experiment to determine their origin. J. Atmos. Sci.,43, 252–275.
Kato, K., 1989: Seasonal transition of the lower-level circulation systems around the Baiu Front in China in 1979 and its relation to the Northern Summer Monsoon. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,67, 249–265.
Kiladis, G. N., and K. M. Weickmann, 1992: Extratropical forcing of tropical Pacific convection during northern winter. Mon. Wea. Rev.,120, 1924–1938.
——, H. von Storch, and H. van Loon, 1989: Origin of the South Pacific convergence zone. J. Climate,2, 1185–1195.
Kodama, Y.-M., 1992: Large-scale common features of subtropical precipitation zones (the Baiu frontal zone, the SPCZ, and the SACZ). Part I: Characteristics of subtropical frontal zones. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,70, 813–836.
——, 1993: Large-scale common features of subtropical convergence zones (the Baiu frontal zone, the SPCZ, and the SACZ). Part II:Conditions of the circulations for generating the STCZs. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,71, 581–610.
Kuo, H. L., 1974: Further studies of the parameterization of the influence of cumulus convection on large-scale flow. J. Atmos. Sci.,31, 1232–1240.
Lau, K.-M., and P. H. Chan, 1985: Aspects of the 40–50-day oscillation during the northern winter as inferred from outgoing longwave radiation. Mon. Wea. Rev.,113, 1889–1909.
Matsumoto, S., K. Ninomiya, and S. Yoshizumi, 1971: Characteristic features of Baiu front associated with heavy rainfall. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,49, 267–281.
Murakami, M., 1984: Analysis of the deep convective activity over the western Pacific and Southeast Asia. Part II: Seasonal and intraseasonal variations during northern summer. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,62, 88–108.
Murakami, T., L.-X. Chen, and A. Xie, 1986: Relationship among seasonal cycles, low-frequency oscillation, and transient disturbances as revealed from outgoing longwave radiation data. Mon. Wea. Rev.,114, 1456–1465.
Ninomiya, K., 1971: Mesoscale modification of synoptic situations from thunderstorm development as revealed by ATS III and aerological data. J. Appl. Meteor.,10, 1103–1121.
——, 1984: Characteristics of Baiu front as a predominant subtropical front in the summer Northern Hemisphere. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,62, 880–894.
——, and T. Akiyama, 1973: Medium-scale echo clusters in the Baiu Front as revealed by multi-radar composite echo maps (Part II). J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,51, 108–118.
Numaguti, A., 1993: Dynamics and energy balance of the Hadley circulation and the tropical precipitation zones: Significance of the distribution of evaporation. J. Atmos. Sci.,50, 1874–1887.
Ose, T., 1998: Seasonal change of Asian summer monsoon circulation and its heat source. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,76, 1045–1063.
Palmen, E., and C. W. Newton, 1969: Atmospheric Circulation Systems: Their Structure and Physical Interpretation. Academic Press, 603 pp.
Sardesmukh, P. D., and B. J. Hoskins, 1985: Vorticity balances in the Tropics during the 1982–83 El Niño–Southern Oscillation event. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor., Soc.,111, 261–278.
Simpson, J., R. F. Adler, and G. R. North, 1988: A proposed Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,69, 278–295.
Ting, M., and I. M. Held, 1990: The stationary wave response to a tropical SST anomaly in an idealized GCM. J. Atmos. Sci.,47, 2546–2566.
Uccellini, L. W., and D. R. Johnson, 1979: The coupling of upper and lower tropospheric jet streaks and implications for the development of severe convective storms. Mon. Wea. Rev.,107, 682–703.
Vincent, D. G., 1982: Circulation features over the South Pacific during 10–18 January 1979. Mon. Wea. Rev.,110, 981–993.
Yamazaki, N., and T.-C. Chen, 1993: Analysis of the East Asian monsoon during early summer of 1979: Structure of the Baiu Front and its relationships to large-scale fields. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,71, 339–355.