A significant fraction of this work was completed while WJR was on sabbatical leave at the Cooperative Research Center for Southern Hemisphere Meteorology at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia. The authors thank Barbara Naujokat from the Free University of Berlin for Singapore zonal winds and David Cullum from the UKMO Hadley Centre for Singapore temperature data. Rolando Garcia and Anne Smith provided constructive reviews. Marilena Stone expertly prepared the manuscript. This work was partly sponsored under NASA Grants W-18181 and W-16215. NCAR is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.
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