Both authors acknowledge the NATO collaborative research Grant CRG 970040 to sponsor the respective research visits. The authors would like to thank Peter Duynkerke for valuable discussions relating to this work. Stefano Galmarini, Maarten Krol, Jan Matthijsen, and Margreet van Zanten gave enlighting suggestions on an early version of the manuscript. Maarten Krol kindly provided the parameterization of the photodissociation rate.
Bretherton, C. S., and Coauthors, 1999: An intercomparison of radiatively-driven entrainment and turbulence in a smoke cloud, as simulated by different numerical models. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,125, 391–425.
Cantrell, C. A., and Coauthors, 1993: Peroxy radicals as measures in ROSE and estimated from photostationary state deviations. J. Geophys. Res.,98, 18 355–18 366.
Cuijpers, J. W. M., and P. G. Duynkerke, 1993: Large eddy simulations of trade wind with cumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci.,50, 3894–3908.
——, and A. A. M. Holtslag, 1998: Impact of skewness and nonlocal effects on scalar and buoyancy fluxes in convective boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci.,55, 151–162.
Deardorff, J. W., 1980: Cloud-top entrainment instability. J. Atmos. Sci.,37, 131–147.
Donaldson, C. P., and G. Hilst, 1972: Effect of inhomogeneous mixing on atmospheric photochemical reactions. Environ. Sci. Technol.,6, 813–816.
Duynkerke, P. G., H. Zhang, and P. J. Jonker, 1995: Microphysical and turbulent structure of nocturnal stratocumulus as observed during ASTEX. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 2763–2777.
Fitzjarrald, D. R., and D. H. Lenschow, 1983: Mean concentration and flux profiles for chemically reactive species in the atmospheric surface layer. Atmos. Environ.,17, 2505–2512.
Galmarini, S., J. Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, and J. Duyzer, 1997: Flux of chemically reactive species inferred from mean concentration measurements. Atmos. Environ.,31, 2371–2374.
Gao, W., and M. L. Wesely, 1994: Numerical modelling of the turbulent fluxes of chemically reactive trace gases in the atmospheric boundary layer. J. Appl. Meteor.,33, 835–847.
Hundsdorfer, W. H., B. Koren, M. van Loon, and J. G. Verwer, 1993:A positive finite-difference advection scheme applied on locally refined grids. International CWI Rep. NM-R9309, CWI, Netherlands.
Krol, M. C., and M. van Weele, 1997: Implications of variations in photodissociation rates for global tropospheric chemistry. Atmos. Environ.,31, 1257–1273.
——, M. J. Molemaker, and J. Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, 2000: Photochemistry in the convective boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res., in press.
Madronich, S., 1987: Photodissociation in the atmosphere: 1. Actinic fluxes and the effects of ground reflections and clouds. J. Geophys. Res.,92, 9740–9752.
Moeng, C. H., 1986: Large-eddy simulation of a stratus-topped boundary layer. Part I: Structure and budgets. J. Atmos. Sci.,43, 2886–2900.
——, and Coauthors, 1996: Simulation of a stratocumulus-topped planetary boundary layer: Intercomparison among different numerical codes. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,77, 261–277.
Molemaker, M. J., and J. Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, 1998: Turbulent control of chemical reactions in the convective boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci.,55, 568–579.
Nicholls, S., and J. Leighton, 1986: An observation study of the structure of stratiform cloud sheets: Part I. Structure. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,112, 431–460.
Paluch, I. R., S. McKeen, D. H. Lenschow, R. D. Schillawski, and G. L. Kok, 1995: Evolution of the subtropical marine boundary layer: Photochemical ozone loss. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 2967–2976.
Sandu, A., J. G. Verwer, M. van Loon, G. R. Carmichaels, F. A. Potra, D. Dabdub, and J. H. Seinfeld, 1997: Benchmarking stiff code solvers for atmospheric chemistry problems: i. Implicit vs explicit. Atmos. Environ.,31, 3151–3166.
Schumann, U., 1989: Large-eddy simulation of turbulent diffusion with chemical reactions in the convective boundary layer. Atmos. Environ.,23, 1713–1729.
Siebesma, A. P., and J. W. M. Cuijpers, 1995: Evaluation of parametric assumptions for shallow cumulus convection. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 650–666.
Stevens, D. E., and C. S. Bretherton, 1999: Effects of grid resolution on large-eddy simulation of radiatively driven entrainment through a strong inversion. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,125, 425–441.
Sykes, R. I., S. F. Parker, D. S. Henn, and W. S. Lewellen, 1994: Turbulent mixing with chemical reactions in the planetary boundary layer. J. Appl. Meteor.,33, 825–834.
van Weele, M., and P. G. Duynkerke, 1993: Effects of clouds on the photodissociation of NO2: Observations and modelling. J. Atmos. Chem.,16, 231–255.
vanZanten, M. C., P. G. Duynkerke, and J. W. M. Cuijpers, 1999: Entrainment parameterization in convective boundary layers derived from large eddy simulations. J. Atmos. Sci.,56, 813–828.
Verwer, J. G., 1994: Gauss seidel iterations for stiff codes from chemical kinetics. SIAM J. Sci. Comput.,15, 1243–1250.
——, H. van Dop, and A. A. M. Holtslag, 1997: Turbulent mixing of reactive gases in the convective boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor.,85, 197–222.
Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J., and J. Lelieveld, 1998: Chemistry in the atmospheric boundary layer. Clear and Cloudy Boundary Layers, A. A. M Holtslag and P. G. Duynkerke, Eds., Royal Netherlands Academy of Science and Arts, 267–286.
——, P. G. Duynkerke, and M. van Weele, 1994: Tethered-balloon measurements of actinic flux in a cloud-capped marine boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res.,99 (D2), 3699–3705.
Vreugdenhil, C. B., and B. Koren, 1993: Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics. Numerical Methods for Advection-Diffusion. Vieweg, 373 pp.