Discussions with Drs. Gerald Janowitz, Sethu Raman, and Vin Saxena at North Carolina State University and Dr. C.-S. Chen at National Central University in Taiwan are appreciated. The authors would like to thank Dr. Joseph Charney at NCSU for proofreading the manuscript and Yuqiu Zhu for help plotting figures. The help from Dr. M. Xue at University of Oklahoma on ARPS is highly appreciated. This work is partially supported by NSF Grant ATM-9224595. Some of the computations were performed on the workstations at the North Carolina Supercomputing Center.
Akaeda, K., J. Reisner, and D. Parsons, 1995: The role of mesoscale and topographically induced circulations in initiating a flash flood observed during the TAMEX project. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 1720–1739.
Chen, C.-S., W.-S. Chen, and Z. Deng, 1991: A study of a mountain-generated precipitation system in northern Taiwan during TAMEX IOP 8. Mon. Wea. Rev.,119, 2574–2606.
Davies, H. C., and C. Schar, 1986: Diabatic modification of airflow over a mesoscale orographic ridge: A model study of the coupled response. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,112, 711–730.
Droegemeier, K. K., and R. B. Wilhelmson, 1987: Numerical simulation of thunderstorm outflow dynamics. Part I: Outflow sensitivity experiments and turbulence dynamics. J. Atmos. Sci.,44, 1180–1210.
Grossman, R. L., and D. R. Durran, 1984: Interaction of low-level flow with the Western Ghats Mountains and offshore convection in the summer monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev.,112, 652–672.
Hayashi, Y., 1970: A theory of large-scale equatorial waves generated by condensation heat and accelerating the zonal wind. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,48, 140–160.
Hess, S. L., 1979: Introduction to Theoretical Meteorology. R. E. Krieger, 362 pp.
Hong, S.-S., and I.-C. Huang, 1996: Effects of topography and atmospheric stability on upstream heavy rainfall during Mei-Yu season. Proc. Fifth National Conf. on Atmospheric Science, Taipei, Taiwan, National Science Council, 580–585.
Houze, R. A., Jr., 1993: Cloud Dynamics. Academic Press, 573 pp.
Iribarne, J. V., and W. L. Godson, 1981: Atmospheric Thermodynamics. 2d ed. D. Reidel, 259 pp.
Johnson, R. H., and J. F. Bresch, 1991: Diagnosed characteristics of precipitation systems over Taiwan during the May–June 1987 TAMEX. Mon. Wea. Rev.,119, 2540–2557.
Jou, B. J.-D., 1994: Mountain-originated mesoscale precipitation system in northern Taiwan: A case study 21 June 1991. Tao,5, 169–197.
——, 1997: Atlas of Radar Images of Mesoscale Convective Systems in the Taiwan Mei-Yu Season. Department of Atmospheric Science, National Taiwan University, 144 pp.
Lin, Y.-L., 1993: Orographic effects on airflow and mesoscale weather systems over Taiwan. TAO,4, 381–420.
——, and H.-Y. Chun, 1991: Effects of diabatic cooling in a shear flow with a critical level. J. Atmos. Sci.,48, 2476–2491.
——, and T.-A. Wang, 1996: Flow regimes and transient dynamics of two-dimensional stratified flow over an isolated mountain ridge. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 139–158.
——, R. L. Deal, and M. S. Kulie, 1998: Mechanisms of cell regeneration, development, and propagation within a two-dimensional multicell storm. J. Atmos. Sci.,55, 1867–1886.
Lindzen, R. S., 1974: Wave-CISK in the Tropics. J. Atmos. Sci.,31, 156–179.
Mueller, C. K., and R. E. Carbone, 1987: Dynamics of thunderstorm outflow. J. Atmos. Sci.,44, 1879–1898.
Raymond, D. J., 1972: Calculation of airflow over an arbitrary ridge, including diabatic heating and cooling. J. Atmos. Sci.,29, 837–843.
——, and R. Rotunno, 1989: Response of a stably stratified flow to cooling. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 2830–2837.
Smith, R. B., 1979: The influence of mountains on the atmosphere. Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 21, Academic Press, 87–230.
——, and Y.-L. Lin, 1982: The addition of heat to a stratified airstream with application to the dynamics of orographic rain. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,108, 353–378.
Smolarkiewicz, P. K., R. M. Rasmussen, and T. L. Clark, 1988: On the dynamics of Hawaiian cloud bands: Island forcing. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 1872–1905.
Thorpe, A. J., M. J. Miller, and M. W. Moncrieff, 1982: Two-dimensional convection in nonconstant shear: A model of mid-latitude squall lines. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,108, 739–762.
Weisman, M. L., and J. B. Klemp, 1982: The dependence of numerically simulated convective storms on vertical wind shear and buoyancy. Mon. Wea. Rev.,110, 504–520.
Xue, M., K. K. Droegemeier, V. Wong, A. Shapiro, and K. Brewster, 1995: Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Version 4.0 user’s guide. Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms, University of Oklahoma, 320 pp. [Available online at http://www.caps.ou.edu/ARPS/ARPS4char.html.].
Yang, M.-J., and R. A. Houze, 1995: Multicell squall-line structure as a manifestation of vertically trapped gravity waves. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 641–661.