This work originated as part of a dissertation at the University of Innsbruck. The financial support by the “Österreichischer Fond zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung—FWF” through Project P-10278GEO (“Systematic investigation of flow over and around an obstacle with the inclusion of downslope winds”) is gratefully acknowledged.
Bauer, M. H., 1997: Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the influence of the horizontal aspect ratio on flow over and around a meso-scale mountain. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Innsbruck, 334 pp. [Available from Department of Meteorology, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.].
Blumen, W., and S. C. Dietze, 1981: An analysis of three-dimensional mountain lee waves in a stratified shear flow. J. Atmos. Sci.,38, 1949–1963.
Castro, I. P., 1987: A note on lee wave structures in stratified flow over three-dimensional obstacles. Tellus,39A, 72–81.
——, and W. H. Snyder, 1993: Experiments on wave breaking in stratified flow over obstacles. J. Fluid Mech.,255, 195–211.
Drazin, P. G., 1961: On the steady flow of a fluid of variable density past an obstacle. Tellus,13, 239–251.
Gal-Chen, T., and R. C. J. Somerville, 1975a: On the use of a coordinate transformation for the solution of the Navier–Stokes equations. J. Comput. Phys.,17, 209–228.
——, and ——, 1975b: Numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations with topography. J. Comput. Phys.,17, 276–310.
Garner, S. T., 1995: Permanent and transient upstream effects in nonlinear stratified flow over a ridge. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 227–246.
Georgelin, M., 1997: Simulation of the foehn-case of 12 January 1996: Unstationarity of the wave breaking area. MAP Newsl.,7, 62–63.
Grubišić, V., and P. K. Smolarkiewicz, 1997: The effect of critical levels on 3D orographic flows: Linear regime. J. Atmos. Sci.,54, 1943–1960.
——, R. B. Smith, and C. Schär, 1995: The effect of bottom friction on shallow-water flow past an isolated obstacle. J. Atmos. Sci.,52, 1985–2005.
Helfand, H. M., and J. C. Labraga, 1988: Design of a nonsingular level 2.5 second-order closure model for the prediction of atmospheric turbulence. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 113–132.
Klemp, J. B., and R. B. Wilhelmson, 1978: The simulation of three-dimensional convective storm dynamics. J. Atmos. Sci.,35, 1070–1096.
Lyra, G., 1940: Über den Einfluß von Bodenerhebungen auf die Strömung einer stabil geschichteten Atmosphäre. Beitr. Phys. Frei. Atmos.,26, 197–206.
——, 1943: Theorie der stationären Leewellenströmung in freier Atmosphäre. Z. Angew. Math. Mech.,23, 1–28.
Mellor, G. L., and T. Yamada, 1982: Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys.,20, 851–875.
Miranda, P. M. A., and I. N. James, 1992: Non-linear three-dimensional effects on gravity-wave drag: Splitting flow and breaking waves. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,118, 1057–1081.
——, and M. A. Valente, 1997: Critical level resonance in three-dimensional flow past isolated mountains. J. Atmos. Sci.,54, 1574–1588.
Olafsson, H., 1996: Atlas des écoulements hydrostatiques autour d’un relief idéalisé. Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques Tech. Rep. 42, 86 pp. [Available from CNRM, 42 Av. Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse, France.].
——, and P. Bougeault, 1996: Nonlinear flow past an elliptic mountain ridge. J. Atmos. Sci.,53, 2465–2489.
——, and ——, 1997: The effect of rotation and surface friction on orographic drag. J. Atmos. Sci.,54, 193–210.
Peng, M. S., S.-W. Li, S. W. Chang, and R. T. Williams, 1995: Flow over mountains: Coriolis force, transient troughs and three dimensionality. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,121, 593–613.
Phillips, D. S., 1984: Analytical surface pressure and drag for linear hydrostatic flow over three-dimensional elliptical mountains. J. Atmos. Sci.,41, 1073–1084.
Pielke, R. A., and Coauthors, 1992: A comprehensive meteorological modeling system—RAMS. Meteor. Atmos. Phys.,49, 69–91.
Pierrehumbert, R. T., and B. Wyman, 1985: Upstream effects of mesoscale mountains. J. Atmos. Sci.,42, 977–1003.
Queney, P., 1948: The problem of airflow over mountains: A summary of theoretical studies. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,29, 16–26.
Schär, C., and D. R. Durran, 1997: Vortex formation and vortex shedding in continuously stratified flows past isolated topography. J. Atmos. Sci.,54, 534–554.
Scorer, R. S., 1956: Airflow over an isolated hill. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,82, 75–81.
Shutts, G. J., 1998: Stationary gravity-wave structure in flows with directional wind shear. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,124, 1421–1442.
Smagorinsky, J., 1963: General circulation experiments with the primitive equations: I. The basic experiments. Mon. Wea. Rev.,91, 99–164.
Smith, R. B., 1980: Linear theory of stratified hydrostatic flow past an isolated mountain. Tellus,32, 348–364.
——, 1982: Synoptic observations and theory of orographically disturbed wind and pressure. J. Atmos. Sci.,39, 60–70.
——, 1988: Linear theory of stratified flow past an isolated mountain in isosteric coordinates. J. Atmos. Sci.,45, 3889–3896.
——, 1989a: Mountain-induced stagnation points in hydrostatic flow. Tellus,41A, 270–274.
——, 1989b: Comment on “Low Froude number flow past three-dimensional obstacles. Part I: Baroclinically generated lee vortices.” J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 3611–3613.
——, and S. Grønas, 1993: Stagnation points and bifurcation in 3-D mountain airflow. Tellus,45A, 28–43.
Smolarkiewicz, P. K., and R. Rotunno, 1989: Low Froude number flow past three-dimensional obstacles. Part I: Baroclinically generated lee vortices. J. Atmos. Sci.,46, 1154–1164.
——, and ——, 1990: Low Froude number flow past three-dimensional obstacles. Part II: Upwind flow reversal zone. J. Atmos. Sci.,47, 1498–1511.
Stein, J., 1992: Investigation of the regime diagram of hydrostatic flow over a mountain with a primitive equation model. Part I: Two-dimensional flows. Mon. Wea. Rev.,120, 2962–2976.
Sun, W.-Y., and J.-D. Chern, 1994: Numerical experiments of vortices in the wakes of large idealized mountains. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 191–209.
Thorsteinsson, S., 1988: Finite amplitude stratified air flow past isolated mountains on an f-plane. Tellus,40A, 220–236.
——, and S. Sigurdsson, 1996: Orogenic blocking and deflection of stratified air flow on an f-plane. Tellus,48A, 572–583.
Trüb, J., 1993: Dynamical aspects of flow over alpine-scale orography: A modeling perspective. Ph.D. dissertation, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, 140 pp. [Available from Institute for Atmospheric Science, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Hönggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.].
Wolyn, P. G., and T. B. McKee, 1992: Modeling and observational study of the daytime evolution east of the crest of the Colorado Rockies. Climatology Rep. 92-1, Dept. of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 255 pp. [Available from Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.].