This research was supported by the Department of Energy under Grant DEFG0297ER62337. The data used in this paper were obtained from the ARM Data Archive. We thank Dr. Fujio Kimura for providing us with the RAMS model, and Dr. Hongli Jiang for discussing Deardorff's turbulent closure scheme. We are also grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their careful reading of the manuscript and their many constructive comments.
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