This work was carried out under the Public Meteorological Services Research Programme of The Met. Office. We thank ECMWF for the use of the ERA data, which were obtained through the British Atmospheric Data Centre, and Paul Berrisford for the use of his seasonal mean ERA tropopause diagnostics. J. Methven would like to thank The Met. Office Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research for funding during the course of this research. Thanks to the reviewers for motivating a more thorough study of the diabatic transport.
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