We thank A. Numaguti and M. Kimoto for permitting us to use CCSR/NIES AGCM version 5.4; K. Yamazaki, Y. Tanimoto, and S. Yoden for helpful discussion; and S. Nigam and two anonymous reviewers for comments that led to improved presentation. We dedicate this paper to A. Numaguti for his efforts in developing the CCSR/NIES AGCM version 5.4 and his generosity to make open his code to the Japanese university community. Supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (2) 12640417 and Scientific Research on Priority Areas (B) (2) 11219203 from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan; the Center for Climate System Research of University of Tokyo; and U. S. National Science Foundation. The figures were produced with the GFD-DENNOU Library.
Blackmon, M. L., 1976: A climatological spectral study of the 500 mb geopotential height of the Northern Hemisphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 33 , 1607–1623.
Blackmon, M. L., , J. M. Wallace, , N-C. Lau, , and S. L. Mullen, 1977: An observational study of the Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation. J. Atmos. Sci., 34 , 1040–1053.
Blackmon, M. L., , G. W. Branstator, , and G. T. Bates, 1987: An analysis of equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature anomaly experiments in general circulation models with and without mountains. J. Atmos. Sci., 44 , 1828–1844.
Charney, J. G., , and A. Eliassen, 1949: A numerical method for predicting the perturbations of the midlatitude westerlies. Tellus, 1 , 38–54.
Edmon, H. J., , B. J. Hoskins, , and M. E. McIntyre, 1980: Eliassen–Palm cross-sections for the troposphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 37 , 2600–2616.
Geisler, J. E., , M. L. Blackmon, , G. T. Bates, , and S. Muñoz, 1985: Sensitivity of January climate response to the magnitude and position of equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies. J. Atmos. Sci., 42 , 1037–1049.
Held, I. M., 1983: Stationary and quasi-stationary eddies in the extratropical troposphere: Theory. Large-scale Dynamical Processes in the Atmosphere, B. J. Hoskins and R. Pearce, Eds., Academic Press, 127–168.
Held, I. M., , and A. Y. Hou, 1980: Nonlinear axially symmetric circulation in a nearly inviscid atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 37 , 513–533.
Hendon, H. H., 1986: The time-mean flow and variability in a nonlinear model of the atmosphere with tropical diabatic forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 43 , 72–88.
Horel, J. D., , and J. M. Wallace, 1981: Planetary-scale atmospheric phenomena associated with the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109 , 813–829.
Hoskins, B. J., , and D. J. Karoly, 1981: The steady linear response of a spherical atmosphere to thermal and orographic forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 38 , 1179–1196.
Hoskins, B. J., , I. N. James, , and G. H. White, 1983: The shape, propagation, and mean-flow interaction of large-scale weather systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 40 , 1595–1612.
Hoskins, B. J., , R. Neale, , M. Rodwell, , and G-Y. Yang, 1999: Aspects of the large-scale tropical atmospheric circulation. Tellus, 51A-B , 33–44.
Huang, R-H., , and K. Gambo, 1982: The response of a hemispheric multi-level model atmosphere to forcing by topography and stationary heat sources (I) Forcing by topography. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 60 , 78–92.
Inatsu, M., , H. Mukougawa, , and S-P. Xie, 2000: Formation of subtropical westerly jet core in an idealized GCM without mountains. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27 , 529–532.
Lau, N-C., 1979: The observed structure of tropospheric stationary waves and local balances of vorticity and heat. J. Atmos. Sci., 36 , 996–1016.
Lindzen, R. S., , and B. Farrell, 1980: A simple approximate result for the maximum growth rate of baroclinic instabilities. J. Atmos. Sci., 37 , 1648–1654.
Manabe, S., , and T. B. Terpstra, 1974: The effects of mountains on the general circulation of the atmosphere as identified by numerical experiments. J. Atmos. Sci., 31 , 3–39.
Matthews, A. J., , and G. N. Kiladis, 1999: Interaction between ENSO, transient circulation, and tropical convection over the Pacific. J. Climate, 12 , 3062–3086.
Nigam, S., , I. M. Held, , and S. W. Lyons, 1986: Linear simulation of the stationary eddies in a general circulation model. Part I: The no-mountain model. J. Atmos. Sci., 43 , 2944–2961.
Nigam, S., , I. M. Held, , and S. W. Lyons, . 1988: Linear simulation of the stationary eddies in a general circulation model. Part II: The “mountain” model. J. Atmos. Sci., 45 , 1433–1452.
Numaguti, A., 1999: Origin and recycling process of precipitating water over the Eurasian continent: Experiment using an atmospheric general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , 1957–1972.
Numaguti, A., , M. Takahashi, , T. Nakajima, , and A. Sumi, 1997: Description of CCSR/NIES atmospheric general circulation model. CGER Supercomputer Monogr., No. 3, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan, 1–48.
Shen, X., , M. Kimoto, , and A. Sumi, 1998: Land-surface processes associated with interannual variability of broad-scale Asian monsoon simulated by the CCSR/NIES AGCM. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 76 , 217–236.
Simmons, A. J., 1982: The forcing of stationary wave motion by tropical diabatic heating. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 108 , 503–534.
Smagorinsky, J., 1953: The dynamical influence of large-scale heat sources and sinks on the quasi-stationary mean motions of the atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 79 , 342–366.
Ting, M-F., , and I. M. Held, 1990: The stationary wave response to a tropical SST anomaly in an idealized GCM. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 , 2546–2566.
Tokioka, T., , and A. Noda, 1986: Effects of large-scale orography on January atmosphere circulation: A numerical experiment. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 64 , 819–839.
Valdes, P. J., , and B. J. Hoskins, 1989: Linear stationary wave simulation of the time-mean climatological flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 2509–2527.
Wallace, J. M., 1983: The climatological mean stationary waves: Observational evidence. Large-Scale Dynamical Processes in the Atmosphere, B. J. Hoskins and R. Pearce, Eds., Academic Press, 27–53.
Watanabe, M., , and M. Kimoto, 2000: Atmospheric–ocean thermal coupling in the North Atlantic: A positive feedback. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126 , 3343–3369.
Watanabe, M., , M. Kimoto, , T. Nitta, , and M. Kachi, 1999: A comparison of decadal climate oscillation in the North Atlantic detected in observed and a coupled GCM. J. Climate, 12 , 2920–2940.
Xie, S-P., , and K. Saito, 2001: Formation and variability of a northerly ITCZ in a hybrid coupled AGCM: Continental forcing and ocean–atmospheric feedback. J. Climate, 14 , 1262–1276.