This investigation was initiated while the first author was a visitor at CSIRO Atmospheric Research, whose staff's hospitality during his stay is gratefully acknowledged. The authors benefitted from discussions they have had with colleagues including J. Tribbia, B. Hunt, J. Berner, and D. Baumhefner, and from an unpublished manuscript by Y. Zhao, H. Van den Dool, and M. Cai in which the anticorrelation between low-frequency eddy flux tendencies and the climatological mean winter waves is also discussed. They also appreciate a careful reading of an earlier version of this paper by A. Kasahara, J. Berner, R. Grotjahn, and A. Giannini. A. Mai prepared the datasets and produced the figures, and B. Ballard prepared the manuscript. The project was partially funded by Grant NA16GP1015 from NOAA's Office of Global Programs and by Grant S-10180-X from NASA's Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project.
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