The data used in this paper were obtained from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. We are particularly grateful to Thomas Ackerman, David Cook, Mark Miller, and Ping Zhu for supplying and interpreting the data. We thank Mandy Khaiyer of AS&M, Inc., Hampton, Virginia, for providing the GOES imagery. Discussions with Harm Jonker are greatly appreciated. The comments of the referees are also acknowledged. D. Pino was partially supported by the project IMMPACTE (CIRIT, DMA, Barcelona, Spain). The visits by the first author to the IMAU were partially supported by the EU program EUROCS (European Project on Cloud Systems in Climate Models). The resources of CESCA and CEPBA were used for parts of the work.
Dr. P. G. Duynkerke died suddenly during the last stage of the research and will be sorely missed.
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