We would like to thank Stephen Eckermann for reviewing an early draft of this work. We would also like to thank the POAM team for guidance in using the POAM ozone measurements. The work was supported in part by the Office of Naval Research. The development and use of the fvDAS was supported by NASA, through their Earth Observation System research program.
Allen, D. R., , J. L. Stanford, , L. S. Elson, , E. F. Fishbein, , L. Froidevaux, , and J. W. Waters, 1997: The 4-day wave as observed from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder. J. Atmos. Sci., 54 , 420–434.
Cohn, S. E., , A. DaSilva, , J. Guo, , M. Sienkiewicz, , and D. Lamich, 1998: Assessing the effects of data selection with the DAO physical-space statistical analysis system. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126 , 2913–2926.
Douglass, A. R., , M. R. Schoeberl, , R. B. Rood, , and S. Pawson, 2003: Evaluation of transport in the lower tropical stratosphere in a global chemistry and transport model. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .4259, doi:10.1029/2002JD002696.
Kiehl, J. T., , J. J. Hack, , G. B. Bonan, , B. A. Boville, , D. L. Williamson, , and P. J. Rasch, 1988: The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model: CCM3. J. Climate, 11 , 1131–1149.
Lawrence, B. N., , and W. J. Randel, 1996: Variability in the mesosphere observed by the Nimbus 6 PMR. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 23475–23489.
Lawrence, B. N., , G. J. Fraser, , R. A. Vincent, , and A. Philips, 1995: The 4-day wave in the Antarctic mesosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 100 , 18899–18908.
Lin, S. J., 1997: A finite-volume integration method for computing pressure gradient force in general vertical coordinates. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 123 , 1749–1762.
Lin, S. J., , and R. B. Rood, 1996: Multidimensional flux-form semi-Lagrangian transport schemes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124 , 2046–2070.
Lin, S. J., , and R. B. Rood, 1997: An explicit flux-form semi-Lagrangian shallow-water model on the sphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 123 , 2477–2498.
Lucke, R. L., and Coauthors. 1999: The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III instrument and early validation results. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , 18785–18799.
Manney, G. L., , and W. J. Randel, 1993: Instability at the winter stratopause: A mechanism for the 4-day wave. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 3928–3938.
Manney, G. L., , T. R. Nathan, , and J. L. Stanford, 1988: Barotropic stability of realistic stratospheric jets. J. Atmos. Sci., 45 , 2545–2555.
Manney, G. L., , T. R. Nathan, , and J. L. Stanford, 1989: Barotropic instability of basic states with a realistic jet and a wave. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 1250–1273.
Manney, G. L., , Y. J. Orsolini, , H. C. Pumphrey, , and A. E. Roche, 1998: The 4-day wave and transport of UARS tracers in the austral polar vortex. J. Atmos. Sci., 55 , 3456–3470.
Randel, W. J., , and L. R. Lait, 1991: Dynamics of the 4-day wave in the Southern Hemisphere polar stratosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 2496–2508.
Schoeberl, M. R., , A. R. Douglass, , Z. X. Zhu, , and S. Pawson, 2003: A comparison of the lower stratospheric age spectra derived from a general circulation model and two data assimilation systems. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .4113, doi:10.1029/2002JD002652.
Štajner, I., , L. P. Riishojgaard, , and R. B. Rood, 2001: The GEOS ozone data assimilation system: Specification of error statistics. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127 , 1069–1094.
Venne, D. E., , and J. L. Stanford, 1979: Observations of a 4-day temperature wave in the polar winter stratosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 36 , 2016–2019.
Venne, D. E., , and J. L. Stanford, 1982: An observational study of high-latitude stratospheric planetary waves in winter. J. Atmos. Sci., 39 , 1026–1034.