This work was supported by Grant N00014-98-1-0595 from the Office of Naval Research with R. Ferek as technical monitor. We would also like to thank the GCSS Working Group 1 for its influence in stimulating this work, and for the comments of three anonymous reviewers that led to improvements in the presentation.
Bechtold, P., C. Fravalo, and J. P. Pinty, 1992: A model of marine boundary layer cloudiness for mesoscale applications. J. Atmos. Sci, 49 , 1723–1744.
Bechtold, P., J. W. M. Cuijpers, P. Mascart, and P. Trouilhet, 1995: Modeling of trade wind cumuli with a low-order turbulence model: Toward a unified description of Cu and Sc clouds in meteorological models. J. Atmos. Sci, 52 , 455–463.
Bougeault, P., 1981: Modeling the trade-wind cumulus boundary layer. Part I: Testing the ensemble cloud relations against numerical data. J. Atmos. Sci, 38 , 2414–2428.
Bretherton, C. S., and M. C. Wyant, 1997: Moisture transport, lower- tropospheric stability, and decoupling of cloud-topped boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci, 54 , 148–167.
Brown, A. R., 1999: The sensitivity of large-eddy simulations of shallow cumulus convection to resolution and subgrid model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 125 , 469–482.
Brown, A. R., and Coauthors, 2002: Large-eddy simulation of the diurnal cycle of shallow cumulus convection over land. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 128 , 1075–1093.
Cuijpers, J. W. M., and P. Bechtold, 1995: A simple parameterization of cloud water related variables for use in boundary layer models. J. Atmos. Sci, 52 , 2486–2490.
Lewellen, D. C., and W. S. Lewellen, 2000: Boundary layer entrainment for different capping conditions. Preprints, 14th Symp. on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, Aspen, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80–83.
Lewellen, D. C., and W. S. Lewellen, 2002: Entrainment and decoupling relations for cloudy boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci, 59 , 2966–2986.
Siebesma, A. P., and Coauthors, 2003: A large-eddy simulation intercomparison study of shallow cumulus convection. J. Atmos. Sci, 60 , 1201–1219.
Sommeria, G., and J. W. Deardorff, 1977: Subgrid-scale condensation in models of nonprecipitating clouds. J. Atmos. Sci, 34 , 344–355.
Stage, S., and J. Businger, 1981: A model for entrainment into a cloud-topped marine boundary layer. Part I: Model description and application to a cold-air outbreak episode. J. Atmos. Sci, . 38 , 2213–2229.