We thank Jessica Neu, Alan Plumb, Lorenzo Polvani, Richard Scott, and Darrell Strobel for helpful discussions and comments on earlier versions of the manuscript. This work was partially supported by NASA and NSF grants.
Baldwin, M. P., , and T. J. Dunkerton, 1999: Downward propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere. J. Geophys. Res, 104 , 30937–30946.
Juckes, M. N., , and M. E. McIntyre, 1987: A high-resolution one-layer model of breaking planetary waves in the stratosphere. Nature, 328 , 590–596.
Mariotti, A., , B. Legras, , and D. G. Dritschel, 1994: Vortex stripping and the erosion of coherent structures in two-dimensional flows. Phys. Fluids, 6 , 3954–3962.
Neu, J. L., 2002: Tropical transport and the seasonal variability of the subtropical “edges” in the stratosphere. Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 223 pp.
Norton, W. A., 1994: Breaking Rossby waves in a model stratosphere diagnosed by a vortex-following coordinate system and a contour advection technique. J. Atmos. Sci, 51 , 654–673.
O'Sullivan, D., , and M. L. Salby, 1990: Coupling of the quasi-biennial oscillation and the extratropical circulation in the stratosphere through planetary wave transport. J. Atmos. Sci, 47 , 650–673.
Polvani, L. M., , D. W. Waugh, , and R. A. Plumb, 1995: On the subtropical edge of the stratospheric surface zone. J. Atmos. Sci, . 52 , 1288–1309.
Salby, M. L., , R. R. Garcia, , D. O'Sullivan, , and J. Tribbia, 1990: Global transport calculations with an equivalent barotropic system. J. Atmos. Sci, 47 , 188–214.
Sobel, A. H., , and R. A. Plumb, 1999: Quantitative diagnostics of mixing in a shallow-water model of the stratosphere. J. Atmos. Sci, 56 , 2811–2929.
Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett, 25 , 1297–1300.
Thompson, D. W. J., , M. P. Baldwin, , and J. M. Wallace, 2002: Stratospheric connection to Northern Hemisphere wintertime weather: Implications for prediction. J. Climate, 15 , 1421–1428.
Thuburn, J., , and V. Lagneau, 1999: Eulerian mean, contour integral, and finite-amplitude wave activity diagnostics applied to a single-layer model of the winter stratosphere. J. Atmos. Sci, 56 , 689–710.
Yao, H. B., , N. J. Zabusky, , and D. J. Dritschel, 1995: High-gradient phenomena in 2-dimensional vortex interactions. Phys. Fluids, . 7 , 539–548.
Yoden, S., , and K. Ishioka, 1993: A numerical experiment on the breakdown of a polar vortex due to forced Rossby waves. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 71 , 59–72.