We would like to thank Mike Wallace for valuable comments on an earlier version of the manuscript, and Greg Hakim for sharing his experience in studying the structure of baroclinic waves. We also appreciate the insightful comments of Chris Snyder and two anonymous reviewers, which motivated us to do additional calculations and sharpened the presentation of this work. This publication is funded by the Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean (JISAO) under NOAA Cooperative Agreement NA17RJ11232, and was completed while the first author held a postdoctoral fellowship from the NOAA Climate and Global Change Program.
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