The authors thank Dr. Mingfang Ting for providing the GCM dynamical core and for helpful discussions. The authors also thank Dr. David Andrews for providing his derivation of the generalized Charney–Drazin theorem in sigma coordinates. We thank Prof. P. H. Haynes and two anonymous reviewers for their insightful and helpful comments. This research is funded by the Climate Dynamics program of the National Science Foundation, ATM-0139101.
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